Friday, 22 May

21:40

Third Way [Commentary - thomistica]

Thomas's Third Way bears remarkable resemblance, at least broadly, with an argument in Richard of St. Victor, De Trinitate, Book I, chaps. 6-8. 

19:41

The Whitsun Cassone [IDLE SPECULATIONS]


Italian School
The Whitsun Cassone
Oil on panel
81 x 198 cm
Campion Hall, University of Oxford


Campion Hall in Oxford was established by the Society of Jesus in 1896 as a private Hall of the University


This cassone is but one

A cassone (or forziere) was a type of decorated wooden dowry chest  from central Italy, used extensively from the end of the fourteenth, through the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 

The construction and decoration of cassoni closely parallel methods used for contemporary altarpieces

It took about a month to paint a cassone front

According to Vasari, the Florentine Apollonio di Giovanni di Tomaso (1414 – 1465) specialised in the painting of such cassoni

Their decoration changed from painted design in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries to carving (sometimes partially gilt) in the second half of the sixteenth century.

This cassone  depicts the descent of the Holy Spirit at the First Pentecost or Whitsunday as described in the Acts of the Apostles, 2: 1–4.

Mary is at the centre of the gathering of the Apostles and disciples in Jerusalem

"1 When the time for Pentecost was fulfilled, they were all in one place together. 
2 And suddenly there came from the sky a noise like a strong driving wind, and it filled the entire house in which they were. 
3 Then there appeared to them tongues as of fire, which parted and came to rest on each one of them. 
4 And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in different tongues, as the Spirit enabled them to proclaim"
However there are some differences

The setting is in the open air and not in a house

The tongues of fire are not yet on the people assembled

The scene is the one before the first proclamation (or kerygma) by St Peter of the messianic significance of the death and resurrection of Jesus:
"Exalted at the right hand of God, he received the promise of the Holy Spirit from the Father and poured it forth, as you (both) see and hear ... 
Therefore let the whole house of Israel know for certain that God has made him both Lord and Messiah, this Jesus whom you crucified."

16:23

Quines Anti-Essentialismus. Teil 1 [Scholastiker]

Antiessentialismus ist die Auffassung, dass es keine Wesenheiten oder Naturen gibt. Diese Auffassung ist so alt wie die Philosophie selbst, wurde aber in der neuzeitlichen Philosophie die vorherrschende Theorie und zwar unabhängig davon, ob es sich um Vertreter der Rationalismus, Konzeptualismus oder Nominalismus handelt. Während der Nominalismus rundweg bestreitet, dass es überhaupt Wesenheiten gibt und selbst Begriffe als bloße Worte versteht, behaupten Rationalisten bzw. Konzeptualisten, dass es in der Realität keine Wesenheiten oder Naturen gibt, dass wir aber in unserem Denken Allgemeinbegriffe bilden können, denen allerdings in der Welt nichts entspricht. Für die analytisch orientierte Gegenwartsphilosophie sind die Argumente des strengen Nominalisten Willard van Orman Quine (1908-2000) sehr einflussreich geworden.



Quine hat folgendes Argument vorgetragen: Stellen Sie sich einen Menschen vor, der sowohl Mathematiker als auch Radfahrer ist. Ein Mathematiker ist gut, wenn es um Arithmetik geht, während dies von einem Radfahrer nicht unbedingt gesagt werden kann. Ein Radfahrer hingegen ist notwendigerweise zweibeinig, während dies für einen Mathematiker nicht notwendig zutreffen muss. Was ergibt sich daraus für unseren fahrradfahrenden Mathematiker? Ist er sowohl notwendigerweise zweibeinig und nicht zweibeinig und notwendigerweise gut in Arithmetik und nicht notwendigerweise gut in Arithmetik? Dieses angebliche Paradox sollte uns nach Quines Auffassung dazu führen, argwöhnisch zu sein, wenn es um Begriffe wie Notwendigkeit, Wesenheit und ähnliches geht.

Allerdings wird Ihnen bereits aufgefallen sein, dass mit dem angeblichen Paradox irgendetwas nicht stimmt. Was dies genau ist, ist allerdings schwieriger zu sagen. Alvin Plantinga und andere Philosophen haben den Fehler dieses scheinbaren Paradoxon formuliert: Die Paradoxie erscheint deshalb, weil die Aussagen als modale Aussagen de re genommen werden. Man unterscheidet bei den Modalbegriffen bzw. modalen Sätze (also Sätze, in denen Begriffe wie „notwendig“ und „möglich“ vorkommen) zwischen de re und de dicto. Der Unterschied, sehr verkürzt erläutert, bedeutet, dass z.B. eine Notwendigkeit de re in der Sache selbst begründet ist, während Notwendigkeit de dicto nur sprachlich gemeint ist. Wenn ich also sage, dass ein Fahrradfahrer notwendigerweise zweibeinig ist und von einem Mathematiker, dass er nicht notwendigerweise zweibeinig ist, dann führt dies dazu, dass ich zwei widersprüchliche Eigenschaften ein und derselben Person zuschreibe, allerdings nur dann, wenn beide Eigenschaften de re verstanden werden. Der Widerspruch verschwindet sofort, wenn wir die Sätze de dicto lesen. Wenn ich nämlich sage, dass es notwendigerweise wahr ist, dass ein Fahrradfahrer zweibeinig ist und dass es nicht notwendigerweise wahr ist, dass ein Mathematiker zweibeinig ist, ist das Paradox bzw. der Widerspruch gelöst. Eine Person kann sowohl eine Radfahrer als auch ein Mathematiker sein und als Radfahrer zweibeinig.

Quine hat noch ein anderes Argument gegen Wesenheiten bzw. Naturen von Dingen angeführt, das ebenfalls recht bekannt geworden ist:

(1)   9 ist notwendigerweise größer als 7
(2)   Die Zahl der Planeten ist 9
(3)   Die Zahl der Planeten ist notwendigerweise größer als 7

Die Aussagen (1) und (2) sind wahr (wenn man Pluto als Planet gelten lässt, was die moderne Physik nicht mehr tut. Doch das spielt für unseren Zusammenhang keine Rolle). Die Aussage (3) ist allerdings falsch, denn es könnten weniger als sieben Planeten in unserem Sonnensystem sein. Daher begründet dieses Beispiel für Quine einen Zweifel an den Modalbegriffen, hier dem Begriff der Notwendigkeit.

Doch auch dieses Paradox ist nur ein scheinbares. Es gibt verschiedene Möglichkeiten, den Widerspruch aufzulösen: Wenn wir die Aussage (2) in dem Sinne verstehen, dass sie eine Existenzaussage ist, die behauptet, dass es neun Planeten gibt, dann folgt (3) nicht aus (1) und (2). Das gleiche trifft zu, wenn wir die Sätze (2) und (3) als Aussagen über die gegenwärtige Zahl der Planeten unseres Sonnensystems lesen, dann folgt (3) aus (1) und (2) und wäre damit nicht falsch.

Warum reden wir hier überhaupt von Notwendigkeit, wo es doch eigentlich um Wesenheiten geht? Die Antwort ist einfach und ergibt sich aus den früheren Beiträgen in diesem Blog zur Frage der Wesenheiten. Diese werden nämlich im Allgemeinen als „notwendige Eigenschaften“ analysiert. Dieser Begriff ist zwar falsch, denn Wesenheiten sind alles andere als Eigenschaften, allerdings ist z.B. ein Mensch notwendigerweise ein Mensch, d.h. er hat diese Wesenheit ein rationales Sinneswesen zu sein, notwendigerweise, insofern er ein Mensch ist. Ein Ding, das kein rationales Sinneswesen ist, ist nämlich kein Mensch, selbst wenn es genauso aussehen würde, sondern z.B. ein Zombie.


Quine hat sich natürlich nicht von den Gegenargumente beeindrucken lassen, sondern weitere Argumente zur Verteidigung seiner Auffassung, dass es keine Modalitäten und damit auch keine Wesenheit gibt, vorgebracht, die ich im nächsten Blogbeitrag vorstellen werde.

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05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829300102
October 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29303101020304
September 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
June 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293001
May 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
March 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282901020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
February 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30310102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282901020304
December 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293001020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
November 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
July 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
April 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293001
March 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
November 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29300102030405
August 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30310102030405
June 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
January 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
December 2009
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
November 2009
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30010203040506