Tuesday, 17 November

23:00

St Hilda and Hidden Gold [A Clerk of Oxford]

St Hilda (Worcester Cathedral) Today is the feast of St Hilda, abbess of Whitby, who died on 17 November 680. Born into a royal family in the north of England, Hilda entered religious life at the age of 33, and in 657 became the founding abbess of Whitby, a double monastery for men and women. She was famous for her wisdom and counsel, according to Bede, who was born in her lifetime and

20:28

Yes. Bingo. [Dyspeptic Mutterings]

The repetitive, predictable and wholly unserious moral finger-wagging which happens after the mass slaughters by Muslim terrorists has gotten to be a bit wearing. Let Mollie Hemingway explain its overarching uselessness in this tidy sixteen point list. And, yes, No. 16 is perfect--but it's not only atheists who do it. I treat atheist arguments from scripture to support their preferred policy

20:01

Move Along Now... [That The Bones You Have Crushed May Thrill]



I'm not sure if these are the 'official' chasubles for the Year of Mercy but they are for sale, it would appear from the photograph, in Mancinelli's, Rome.

I really hope - I really pray - these aren't going to be mandated for all Catholic priests to inaugurate the Year of Mercy.



19:57

The drownings at Nantes [New Sherwood]

NantesDrowningFrenchRev

The terror attacks in Paris have turned the thoughts of many to France and the sordid history of the French republic. I am always a little shocked when I read detailed accounts of the French revolution.  The atrocities are so recent (just 200+ years) – and so obviously motivated by secular ideas still widely held – that it all hits very close to home.

I don’t usually think of the present French regime as being unapologetically in continuity with Robespierre and Jacobinism, but maybe I’m wrong about that. In any case, it probably wouldn’t take much for our most “progressive” leaders to excuse or even condone these atrocities. Just a manufactured “crisis” that renders the “intolerant” intolerable.

Yesterday, November 16, commemorated the first mass drowning of 90 Catholic priests in the Loire River in 1793. The total number of priests, nuns, and other “royalist sympathizers” cruelly executed by drowning in subsequent weeks is unknown, but scholarly estimates range from 1800 to 9000. Read the Wiki article for details.


17:48

A refreshing look at the proper role—and enormous power—of women in the Church [CatholicCulture.org - Commentary on Catholic News and World Affairs]

For well over a generation, questions about the role of women in the Catholic Church have generated angry debates without producing satisfactory resolutions. In the 1980s the US bishops’ conference, having tackled such controversial topics as nuclear weaponry and economic policy, set out to write another pastoral letter on the role of women. After years of inconclusive consultations and discussions, they retired from the field; the pastoral was never finished.

17:37

"In those days there was no king in Israel; every man did what was right in his own eyes." [Dyspeptic Mutterings]

Polytheism is back, and it wears a crucifix. Or, perhaps more accurately, a resurrefix. That is, alas, the logical conclusion of the current pontiff's recent statement opening the reception of the previously-Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist to pretty much everybody who has thought about it really hard and thinks they have engaged in an internal dialogue with Christ on the topic. If

16:53

Haven't stopped blogging. [Dyspeptic Mutterings]

Just a wee bit busy with life outside of the net. We had an early Thanksgiving with my parents, brother, sister-in-law, nephew and niece (my little brother's seniority is, alas, insufficient for actual Thanksgiving time off). Always good to see family. We also witnessed an historic event: the Lions winning in Wisconsin, mirabile dictu. I made a brief return foray into Facebook, courtesy of my

16:27

Dr. Louise Cowan: A Heart that Sees [I Have to Sit Down]

Although she smiled warmly and spoke gently (and, if I remember rightly, barely cleared five feet in height!), I was somewhat abashed, not only by her chic southern elegance, but by the dark sunglasses she wore at all times. Dr. Louise suffered from a thyroid disorder which left her nearly blind, and after a series of surgeries, her [Read More...]

14:01

For the Bishops, It's Election Day [Whispers in the Loggia]

Tuesday's USCCB agenda topped by the election of six committee chairs and three votes that'll lock in the direction of the US church's policy agenda for the remainder of this decade,  the live-text feed of the results, etc. as it all happened is below the jump... and here's on-demand video for the whole of this meeting's final public session.

(Livefeed pulled due to cost.)

-30-

08:40

Terror in Paris [New Sherwood]

This is an important video. The Remnant gently reminds us that our modern struggle with Islam is rooted in the spiritual crisis of the West and the auto-implosion of the Catholic Church. In that analysis, Michael Matt is spot-on.

It doesn’t seem to me that he is taking a pacifist stance, but he does seem to suggest that if the West’s response to Islamism isn’t overtly and militantly Catholic, then it’s more or less a waste of time. I’m not quite on board with that, but I will say that any country whose military is institutionally hostile to Christ and which is, moreover, riddled with women and homosexuals, is going to have a hard time winning God’s favor and protection.


04:10

Ante-Purgatory: The 3 Ways Those Who Repent Late in Life are Punished in Dante’s Purgatorio [St. Peter's List]

Ante-Purgatory

 

1. The Excommunicated

In Canto III, Dante and Virgil encounter those souls who were excommunicated. The reason, however, these souls are in purgatory and not hell is because they repented at the very end of their life. In Dante’s Purgatorio, the repentant excommunicants are actually not in purgatory proper – they are in ante-purgatory or that which comes before purgatory. Virgil and the Pilgrim Dante meet a soul named Manfred. The soul explains that the souls of excommunicants who repent late in life must wait in ante-purgatory thirty times as long as they waited to repent on earth. The wait can, however, be shorted by intercessory prayer. Manfred explains his situation in a very beautiful section of verses:

Horrible was the nature of my sins,
but boundless mercy stretches out its arms
to any man who comes in search of it,

[…]

The church’s curse is not the final word
for Everlasting Love may still return,
if hope reveals the slightest hint of green.

True, he who dies scorning the Holy Church,
although he turns repentant at life’s end,
must stay outside, a wanderer on this bank,

for thirty time as long as he has lived
in his presumptuousness-although good prayers
may shorten the duration of his term.

The reason waiting in ante-purgatory is a punishment is because the souls cannot begin their purgation, and it is their purgation that makes them fit to enter into the beatific bliss of heaven. It is possible that Dante has the souls wait “thirty times as long” as they lived in their presumptuous state due to “a provision in Canon Law that calls for a thirty-day period of grace before the ban of excommunication goes into effect.”1

 

2. The Indolent

After climbing through an arduous gap in the mountain, Dante the Pilgrim is told that Mount Purgatory actually becomes easier to climb the higher you go.2 As they continue their ascent, Dante the Pilgrim and Virgil meet the “indolent souls” who constitute the second class of the “Late Repentants” in ante-purgatory. The indolent souls are lazy. Though they were not excommunicated as the first class of Late Repentants, the indolent souls simply waited until their end of their life to repent. They are punished by having to wait outside purgatory proper for as many years as they waited to repent on earth. An indolent soul named Belacqua explains:

Before I start, the heavens must revolve
as many times as while I was alive,
for I put off repenting till the end.

Prayers could, of course, make my time shorter here:
prayers form a heart that lives in grace–the rest
are worthless, for they go unheard in Heaven!”

Note that Dante again includes the benefit of intercessory prayer when speaking of the punishment of these souls. With the indolent, the concept of praying for the poor souls in purgatory is explained in further detail and includes that those prayers must come from an individual on earth who is in a state of grace.3

 

3. The Unshriven: Violent Deaths

As Dante the Pilgrim and Virgil continue on their ascent, they discover a group of souls chanting Miserere. The souls are the third and final class of the Late Repentants. They are those “who died a violent death but managed to repent in the final moments.”4

We are all souls who met a violent death,
and we were sinners to our final hour;
but then the light of Heaven lit our minds,

and penitent and pardoning, we left
that life at peace with God, Who left our hearts
with longing for the holy sight of Him.”

Here they encounter the soul named Buonconte of Montefeltro. Buonconte’s story is notable: “At this death there ensured a struggled between the powers of good and evil for his soul; since he had uttered the name of Mary with his dying breath and shed a tear of true repentance, the heavenly faction prevailed and bore his soul off to Paradise. But a demon took possession of his corpse and played havoc with it: he conjured up a storm and sent the mortal remains plummeting down the raging and swollen river channels.”5 He states:

I made my way, my throat on open wound,
fleeing on foot, and bloodying the plain.

There I went blind. I could no longer speak,
but as I died, I murmured Mary’s name,
and there I fell and left my empty flesh.

The unshriven or unabsolved begin the theme of each group in purgatory having its own prayer. The unshriven sing the Miserere, which is King David’s famous Psalm 50 asking for forgiveness.6 The unshriven souls request that Dante and others pray for them.7 Continuing the theme of intercessory prayer, Dante asks Virgil about the “power of prayer to affect the will of Heaven.”8 Virgil states, “high justice would in no way be debased / if ardent love should cancel instantly / the debt these penitents must satisfy.”9 In contrast, however, Virgil submits there are “those whose sins could not be urged by prayer / because their prayers had no access to God.”10

 

The Gate of Purgatory

"The Portals of Purgatory" by Gustave Dore.

“The Portals of Purgatory” by Gustave Dore.

While still in ante-purgatory, Virgil and Dante the Pilgrim continue to the Valley of the Princes where the “Negligent Rulers” dwell.11 The rulers are singing the Salve Regina. Though not late repentants, the rulers continue a theme of negligence seen in the excommunicants, the indolent, and the unshriven. After a few other encounters, Dante the Pilgrim and Virgil arrive at the Gate of Purgatory. Three steps lead up to the gate. The first is a marble step “polished to the glaze of a looking glass.”12 The second is a black step, “rough and crumbling, fire-corroded stone.”13 And the third and final step – upon which the Gate of Purgatory sat – was “red as the blood that spurts out from a vein.”14 According to Musa, “the three steps are generally taken t0 represent the three stages of repentance: the first step, which is white and mirror-like, stands for self-examination; the second, black, rough step stands for sorrow for sin, or contrition; the third, flaming-red step signifies satisfaction of the sinner’s debt, or penance.”15 On the threshold of the Gate of Purgatory sits an angel clothed in an ash gray robe holding a sword. When Dante approaches, the angel traces seven “P’s” on his forehead. In Latin, the word for sin is peccatum, which foreshadows the seven capital vices that will be purged in purgatory. The angel even warns Dante to be sure to “wash away” the wounds on his journey. The angel then takes keys given to him by St. Peter – one gold and one silver – and opens the Gate of Purgatory. As the gate opens, Dante can hear Te Deum Laudamus being sung.

  1. Purgatory, Trans. Musa, 39 n. 139.
  2. See Canto IV, line 88-90.
  3. See Purgatory, 48, n. 133-35.
  4. Purgatory, 49.
  5. Purgatory, Canto V, 49.
  6. Psalm 50 – DR.
  7. Canto VI, 25-37.
  8. Purgatory, 57.
  9. Canto VI, 37-19.
  10. Canto VI, 41-2.
  11. Canto VII.
  12. Canto IX, 94-5.
  13. Id. 98.
  14. Id. 102.
  15. Purgatory, 105.

01:03

Augustine on semantic indeterminacy [Edward Feser]

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St. Augustine’s dialogue The Teacher is concerned with the nature of language.  There are several passages in it which address what twentieth-century philosophers call semantic indeterminacy -- the way that utterances, behavior, and other phenomena associated with the use of language are inherently indeterminate or ambiguous between different possible interpretations.  Let’s take a look.  (I will be quoting from the Peter King translation, in Arthur Hyman, James J. Walsh, and Thomas Williams, eds., Philosophy in the Middle Ages, Third edition.)

The dialogue is a discussion between Augustine and his son Adeodatus.  Several pages into the dialogue (at pp. 12-13 of the text I’m quoting from) the question arises whether someone can teach another person the meaning of a term without using words or other signs such as pointing one’s finger at a thing, but instead just by way of one’s actions:

Augustine: What if I should ask you what walking is, and you were then to get up and do it? Wouldn't you be using the thing itself to teach me, rather than using words or any other signs?

Adeodatus: I admit that this is the case.  I'm embarrassed not to have seen a point so obvious.  On this basis, too, thousands of things now occur to me that can be exhibited through themselves rather than through signs: for example, eating, drinking, sitting, standing, shouting, and countless others.

Augustine: Now do this: tell me-- if I were completely ignorant of the meaning of the word ['walking'] and were to ask you what walking is while you were walking, how would you teach me?

Adeodatus: I would do it a little bit more quickly, so that after your question you would be prompted by something novel [in my behavior], and yet nothing would take place other than what was to be shown.

Augustine: Don’t you know that walking is one thing and hurryinganother?  A person who is walking doesn't necessarily hurry, and a person who is hurrying doesn't necessarily walk.  We speak of 'hurrying' in writing and in reading and in countless other matters.  Hence given that after my question you kept on doing what you were doing, [only] faster, I might have thought walking was precisely hurrying -- for you added that as something new -- and for that reason I would have been misled.

End quote.  Augustine’s point is that the behavior Adeodatus was proposing as a means by which one may teach the meaning of the word “walking” is ambiguous or indeterminate between the meaning walking and the meaning hurrying.  Nothing in the behavior considered by itself could determine one or the other interpretation, nor could it rule out yet some other possible interpretation (such as jogging or being chased).  Hence exhibiting that behavior could not by itself teach the meaning of “walking.” 

Later on in the discussion (at p. 27), Adeodatus himself reinforces the point with a related but slightly different example:

Adeodatus: … For example, if anyone should ask me what it is to walk while I was resting or doing something else, as was said, and I should attempt to teach him what he asked about without a sign, by immediately walking, how shall I guard against his thinking that it's just the amount of walking I have done?  He'll be mistaken if he thinks this.  He'll think that anyone who walks farther than I have, or not as far, hasn't walked at all.

Here the idea is that by walking six feet (say), you will have done something the meaning of which is indeterminate between the meaning walking and the meaning walking six feet.  Hence if someone asked you what “walking” means and you carried out that behavior in response, he could come away thinking “Oh, ‘walking’ means moving in that manner” but he could also come away thinking “Oh, ‘walking’ means moving six feet in that manner.”  Again, since nothing in the behavior considered by itself could determine either of these meanings or some other meaning altogether, the behavior by itselfcould not suffice to explain the meaning.

Now, you might think that further behavior that provides a larger context for the walking, or gestures, or explanatory utterances, or other elements of the overall communicative environment, will suffice to determine which meaning is intended.  Augustine himself doesn’t pursue the issue much further, but in fact the indeterminacy would afflict all of these other aspects of the situation as well.  This is the lesson of examples like W. V. Quine’s “gavagai” example in Word and Object, and Saul Kripke’s “quus” example in Wittgenstein on Rules and Private Language.  Any collectionof behaviors, gestures, and even utterances, will be ambiguous or indeterminate between different possible interpretations.  Even if you add to the story mental pictures and other images, including inner “utterances” -- as when you call before your mind the way that the sentence “By this action I mean walking!” sounds, or the way the sentence looks when written out -- that will not solve the problem, because those images are also susceptible of different possible interpretations. 

So what does determine what is meant?  Here different philosophers offer different answers.  Quine famously held that there simply is no fact of the matter about what one means by an utterance.  Meaning is not merely indeterminate from behaviorand the like, but indeterminate full stop.  But Augustine would not agree with that.  (Which is a good thing, since, as I have argued many times, the idea that there is no determinate meaning full stop is incoherent.  See e.g. my article “Kripke, Ross, and the Immaterial Aspects of Thought,” reprinted in Neo-Scholastic Essays.) 

But again, what does determinate what is meant?  Augustine doesn’t say much about that -- the indeterminacy of semantic content is not his main topic, after all -- other than to note (at p. 28) that someone who is intelligent will be able to figure out the significance of behavior, a judgment with which his son concurs:

Adeodatus: … If he is sufficiently intelligent, he’ll know the whole of what it is to walk, once walking has been illustrated by a few steps.

Of course this is, in one sense, not terribly informative or helpful, even though it is perfectly true that we typically are able to figure out what is meant by different behaviors.  For we want to know exactly how an intelligent person figures out the meaning, given that the behavior is inherently ambiguous or indeterminate in its significance. 

In another way, though, Augustine’s point is a deep one, even if this is best seen by reading it as an answer to a question that is not exactly the one he was addressing.  Materialist or naturalist accounts of thought and its content typically suppose that they can be explained in terms of causal relationsof some kind.  The idea is that a thought will have the content that (say) the cat is on the mat if it bears the right sort of causal relation to the state of affairs of the cat’s being on the mat.  Spelling out what the “right” sort of causal relation would be is where things get very complicated.  And the main issue is that indeterminacy problems afflict every attempt to spell out the analysis.  For the state of affairs we call the cat’s being on the matcan also be described as a state of affairs involving a domesticated mammal’s being on the mat.  So why does the fact that this state of affairs causes the thought entail that the thought has the content the cat is on the mat as opposed to the content a domesticated mammal is on the mat?  You can add details to the description of the causal relation to get around this problem, but the revised account of the causal relation will in turn face indeterminacy problems of its own.  (An example would be Fred Dretske’s account of semantic content, which I discussed in a post a few years ago.)

At the end of the day, the indeterminacy can only be eliminated by simply conceptualizing the relevant causal relata in this specific way rather than that way.  That is to say, it can be eliminated only when there is an intellect present which can do the needed conceptualizing.  Yet the whole point of the causal theory of content was to explain where thoughts having a certain conceptual content come from.  So any such theory must fail.  It inevitably must presuppose the very thing it was supposed to be explaining.  (This is a point which has been made in different ways by Karl Popper and Hilary Putnam, and which I develop in “Hayek, Popper, and the Causal Theory of the Mind,” also reprinted in Neo-Scholastic Essays.)

The deep point implicit in what Augustine says, then -- though again, this isn’t really the set of issues he was addressing -- is that the intellect’s grasp of meanings is more fundamental than any behavior, gestures, utterances, aspects of the communicative context, etc. that might be used to teach or express meanings.  Hence you are not going to be able explain the former in terms of the latter.  You are not going to be able to reduce intelligence to patterns of behavior or dispositions to behavior (as the behaviorist holds), or explain it in terms of causal relations between the human organism and aspects of its environment (as causal theories of content hold), etc., because the behavior, causal relations, etc. have whatever semantic associations they have only by reference to an intellect which grasps those associations.  The intellect is itself the central and irreducible element of the semantic situation.  (It is irreducible to inner “utterances” and other mental imagery too.  When I entertain the thought that the cat is on the mat, I might “hear” in my mind the English sentence “The cat is on the mat,” but that auditory image is not itselfthe thought.  See “Kripke, Ross, and the Immaterial Aspects of Thought” for more on this subject.)

In this vein, Augustine also notes (at p. 29) that it is a mistake to think that gestures like pointing are the key to understanding meaning.  Pointing one’s finger is, after all, itself just another piece of behavior susceptible of alternative interpretations, and is not in the first place fundamentally about the thing pointed to at all:

Augustine: … I don’t much care about aiming with the finger, because it seems to me to be a sign of the pointing-out itself rather than of any things that are pointed out.  It's like the exclamation ‘look!’ -- we typically also aim the finger along with this exclamation, in case one sign of the pointing-out isn’t enough.

In other words, what pointing primarily does is to call attention to the fact that the one pointing is trying to call our attention to something, and only secondarilydoes it indicate the thing that is being pointed to.  This reflects the fact that the presence of an intellect is fundamental to the semantic situation, and the significance of gestures, utterances, actions, etc. is only derivative.  Imagine a garden hose lying on the ground in such a way that it seems to “point” to a certain tree.  We don’t regard this as genuine “pointing” -- in the sense that deliberately aiming your finger at someone is genuine pointing -- because we know that the hose does not have an intellect and thus cannot be trying to call our attention to something.  We would regard it as genuine pointing only if we supposed some person had come along and arranged the hose that way in order to get us to notice the tree.

It would be absurd, then, to try to explain how intellect gets into the picture by starting with meaningless physical elements and their behaviors, then supposing that some kind of “pointing” arises in sufficiently complex systems -- say, by means of causal relations of some sort -- and then in turn supposing that intellects arise in some subset of these systems which cross some yet higher threshold of complexity.  All of this would get things precisely backwards.  For “pointing” of the relevant sort could arise only where there is already an intellect present, which intends by the “pointing” to call attention to something.

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Ley Natural XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Little Flower Farm XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
LMS Chairman XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Loved As If XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
marcpuck XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Mary Victrix XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Mathias von Gersdorff XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Musings of a Pertinacious Papist XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Liturgical Movement XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Sherwood XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Song XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
News - thomistica XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
NICK'S CATHOLIC BLOG XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
One Mad Mom XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
OnePeterFive XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Opus Publicum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Over the Rhine and Into the Tiber XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Oz Conservative XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Paths of Love XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Psallam Domino XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RORATE CÆLI XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RSS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Sancrucensis XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Scholastiker XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Semiduplex XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Siris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Spirit of Teuchtar II XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Conleth's Catholic Heritage Association XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Peter's List XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Steeple and State XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Symposium XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tęsknota XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Taylor Marshall XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tea at Trianon XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
That The Bones You Have Crushed May Thrill XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The American Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Badger Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Dormitory XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Thing XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The City and the World XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Daily Register XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Deacon's Bench XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Divine Lamp XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Eponymous Flower XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The hermeneutic of continuity XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Jesuit Post XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Josias XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Lepanto Institute XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Low Churchman's Guide to the Solemn High Mass XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Paraphasic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Prosblogion XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Rad Trad XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Remnant Newspaper - The Remnant Newspaper - Remnant Articles XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sacred Page XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sensible Bond XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The TOF Spot XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Theological Flint XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
totaliter aliter XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Traditional Catholic Priest XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Transalpine Redemptorists at home XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unam Sanctam Catholicam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unequally Yoked XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Voice of the Family XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vox Cantoris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vultus Christi XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Whispers in the Loggia XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Zippy Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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