Tuesday, 05 January

22:05

'Learn to love as I love thee' [A Clerk of Oxford]

Nativity (BL Harley 2915, f.28) Learn to love as I love thee. In all my limbs thou mayest see How sore they quake for cold; For thee I suffer all this woe, Love me, sweet, and no mo; [no other] To thee me take and hold. Jesu, sweet son dear, In poor bed thou liest now here, And that grieveth me sore. For thy cradle is a bier, Ox and ass are thy fere, [companions] Weep may I therefore! Jesu

21:01

Bahnhofsvorplatz ist die große Suppenküche [katholon]

Erst war es ein bedrückendes Schweigen. Dann murmelte es sich durch die sozialen Medien. Die Lokalpresse in Köln war sofort dabei, allerdings zunächst sehr verhalten. Drei Tage nach den Ereignissen der Silvesternacht in Köln rauscht es nicht nur in jedem Blätterwald, sondern es beginnt nun langsam jeder sein Süppchen auf der Horrornacht von Köln zu kochen.

Wenigstens das ZDF gestand seine Fehleinschätzung ein und entschuldigte sich mit folgen Worten via Facebook:

„Die Nachrichtenlage war klar genug. Es war ein Versäumnis, dass die 19-Uhr-heute-Sendung die Vorfälle nicht wenigstens gemeldet hat. Die heute-Redaktion entschied sich jedoch, den geplanten Beitrag auf den heutigen Tag des Krisentreffens zu verschieben, um Zeit für ergänzende Interviews zu gewinnen. Dies war jedoch eine klare Fehleinschätzung.“

Stellvertretender ZDF-Chefredakteur Elmar Theveßen

Auch wenn heute erst ganz langsam und verhalten die Pressemaschinerie anrollte, bedurfte es sofort der Mahnung bei den Fakten zu bleiben. Der Artikel versucht eine Abwehr zu früher sowie unseriöser Deutungen und Spekulationen. In der taz allerdings möchte man unter Berufung auf den Pressecodex Informationen über die mutmaßlichen Täter zurückhalten. Das wäre höchst manipulativ, denn schon längst haben sich diese Informationen durch die sozialen Medien bereitet. Auch wenn es die taz & Co rot und grün ärgert, dank Facebook, Twitter und Co gibt es keine Lufthoheit über die veröffentlichte Meinung mehr. Nach einem Warnruf mit Aufschreicharakter über das Schweigen der Feministinnen, sah sich dann heute zumindest EMMA bemüßigt, sich zu äußern. Dafür allerdings muß sie sich von der taz als „Rechtsfeministin“ bezeichnen lassen. Liebe Frau Schwarzer, willkommen am rechten Rand der gefährlichen Bürger. Als ebenfalls begabte Köchin auf der Bahnhofsvorplatte erweist sich Sabrina Hoffmann in der Huffington Post. Dort geißelt sie (wohlgemerkt auf dem Rücken der Opfer von Köln, Stuttgart und Hamburg!) die Diskussion als Heuchelei und markiert den Krieg, der in Deutschland schon längst gegen die Frauen tobe. Natürlich geht es gegen Pegida und AfD. Dort verortet sie die eigentlichen Feinde der Frau. Dagegen kritisiert Jan Fleischhauer den Erziehungsjournalismus. Die Kanzlerin erklärt der noch frischen Oberbürgermeisterin telefonisch ihre Empörung.

Dieses Blitzlicht auf das politische- mediale Pingpongspiel rund um die skandalösen Ereignisse der Silvesternacht in Köln ist ein Bild für den Zustand unserer Gesellschaft. Zerrissen bis ins tiefste, können wir nicht einmal mehr den Konsens dessen akzeptieren, was uns die Fakten diktieren. Eine Horde krimineller Männer mit nordafrikanischem und / oder arabischen Aussehen, die offensichtlich zum Teil polizeibekannte Intensivstraftäter sind haben in der Silvesternacht in Köln rund um den Hauptbahnhof  vor den Augen der Polizei eine große Zahl Straftaten begangen.

Statt für öffentliche Sicherheit und Ordnung zu sorgen, stellt man nun Verhaltensregeln für Frauen zum Karneval auf.

Eines kam in den vielen Artikeln, die dann nach der ersten Schweigephase nun die Blätter und Portale stürmen, gar nicht zur Sprache: Die Opfer der Verbrechen. Viele der Frauen werden nicht nur körperliche sondern seelische Verletzungen davon tragen. Die traumatisierenden Übergriffe werden sie in ihrem Leben beeinträchtigen und viele werden lange Zeit darunter leiden. Vor lauter Politik, Empörungskultur, Gutmenschentum und Rechtfertigungsgeschwafel hat man offensichtlich völlig vergesen, den Schrei der Opfer zu hören.

Die politischen und medialen Suppenköche unserer Tage werden sich davon nicht abhalten lassen, weiter in ihren Pötten links oder rechts herum zu rühren. In den wenigsten Fällen wird mit Nüchternheit und Klarheit berichtet, werden Fakten zusammen getragen werden. Nur wenige Tage und niemand wird mehr etwas von Köln wissen wollen. Nur die Opfer, die werden es eben nicht vergessen.

Wenn es etwas gibt, was man nun in jedem Falle für die Opfer tun kann, ist es die Täter zu ermitteln und angemessen zu bestrafen. Darüber hinaus wird es sicher jedem Opfer ein Trost sein, wenn man erkennen könnte, daß künftig alles getan wird, damit sich so eine skandalöse Katastrophennacht nicht wiederholt. Es gibt genügend kluge Sicherheitsfachleute in unserem Land, die sich darüber Gedanken machen können. Ohne ein entschiedenes Durchgreifen nämlich kommen weiter Suppenköche ins Spiel. Es gab schon Ankündigungen von Hooligans und / oder Neonazis, am Kölner Bahnhof mal aufzuräumen. Natürlich kommmen dann auch die Linken und werden auch aufräumen wollen. Das hört sich doch „interessant“ an. Bei so viel Aufräumern fühlt sich der Bürger doch gleich in eine andere Zeit versetzt. Es erinnert an die 20er Jahre, auch damals hatte die öffentliche Hand das Gewaltmonopol auf der Straße verloren. Das Ergebnis dürfte bekannt sein. Nur eine wirklich konsequente Vorgehensweise und absolute Nulltoleranz gegen Straftäter jeglicher Couleur wird noch helfen. Ob Politik und Behörden sich zu harten und klaren Schritten werden durchringen können, dem linksgrün dominierten Mediengetöse zum Trotz, das wird abzuwarten sein.

20:43

Celebrate Epiphany as it is meant to be! [Vox Cantoris]

It is absurd that in the nervous disorder, this most ancient feast is celebrated as early as January 2 and as late as January 7.

You can do something about it.


20:03

Toronto Philosophy of Religion Work-in-Progress Group [The Prosblogion]

For the past few years, I have organized a lively philosophy of religion work-in-progress group at Ryerson University in downtown Toronto. – If you would like to be added to the mailing list for this group, please email me: kraay@ryerson.ca – If you are (or plan to be) in the Toronto area this semester, and [...]

19:24

St. John Neumann, Pray for Us! [LES FEMMES - THE TRUTH]

If you aren't familiar with St. John Neumann, fourth Bishop of Philadelphia, please remedy the situation at once. What a great saint! He himself was an immigrant to the United States where he exhausted himself in service to God's people. A gifted linguist, he was the perfect priest to be sent to America where multiple immigrant people often had no priest who could speak their languages. Neumann, on the contrary, was fluent in six languages including Italian and taught himself Gaelic so he could hear the confessions of the Irish immigrants in the coal-mining region of Pennsylvania who had no English.

St. John began as a diocesan priest, but desired the fellowship of community life and later entered the Redemptorists.
What a blessing for that order! He was the very first to be professed in the U.S. Even then, he often toiled alone since the needs in the "new country" were great and the number of priests few. At his first assignment in the Niagara Region, the young priest walked miles to visit his farming flock who were spread far and wide. A parishioner later gave him a horse, but he detested riding and often chose to walk instead. He was once rescued from attack by friendly Indians in the area.

After he became a Redemptorist, Fr. Neumann served in Maryland and was pastor at St. Augustine's in Elkridge from 1849-1851. That gives my husband and me a personal relationship with him. St. Augustine's was my parish church for about four years (when I was home from college) and it is the parish church where we were married.

St. John always loved poverty. He arrived in the country with one suit of clothes and only a dollar in his pocket. His devotion to poverty continue throughout his life. As bishop, St. John often gave away everything he had to the poor. His clothing was so threadbare he was sometimes chided by his brother priests.  When one told him he should change because it was unseemly for a bishop to dress like that, he asked what he should change into since the cassock he was wearing was the only one he had. (His humility was so great the saint always acted as one among equals with his confreres. Wouldn't it be nice to see that kind of humility and virtue among our bishops today, many of whom live in the lap of luxury?)

When the bishop collapsed on a street in Philadelphia in January of 1848, those who took him into a nearby house didn't recognize the bishop of Philadelphia in the poorly clad man they carried. By the time a priest was brought he had already died.

What a great saint for our time when so many of the hierarchy serve themselves instead of their flocks. Let us ask his intercession for the sanctification of our bishops. You can make a virtual visit to the Shrine of St. John Neumann in Philadelphia here. And I heartily recommend the saint's short autobiography which he wrote under obedience after being named bishop of Philadelphia.

PRAYER FOR THE INTERCESSION OF SAINT JOHN NEUMANN

O Saint John Neumann, your ardent desire of bringing all souls to Christ impelled you to leave home and country; teach us to live worthily in the spirit of our Baptism which makes us all children of the one Heavenly Father and brothers and sisters of Jesus Christ, the first-born of the family of God.

Obtain for us that complete dedication in the service of the needy, the weak, the afflicted and the abandoned which so characterized your life. Help us to walk perseveringly in the difficult and, at times, painful paths of duty, strengthened by the Body and Blood of our Redeemer and under the watchful protection of Mary our Mother.

May death still find us on the sure road to our Father's House with the light of living Faith in our hearts. Amen.

17:45

The beginning of the year is a good time to reflect on... [marcpuck]

What are presumably the many ways that I make judgments about others so often without any just reason-- not that there is anything earthshatteringly profound about the couple of instances I've just dealt with, but one progresses in the use of the virtues in the way of habit, after all, so the less than good habits can be of no little significance in the long term. All that was prompted by my being mildly peeved that so and so on Twitter has posted about, as if it were breaking news, something that happened weeks ago: why do people do that? but of course that I myself tweet about nonsense I find newsworthy or notable currently happening, more or less, and in any event not a month ago-- if only because it is more than likely that others have already tweeted about it usque ad mortem, probably fifty of them, and that repeatedly (which is another peeve: your blog post! I've seen your tweet about it a score or more of times: do stop tweeting about it, please)-- good heavens! when did the God of Social Media make me arbiter of such things? gosh. 

*^*^*

Am at work and so don't have access to the non-English keyboards which supply the characters that I ordinarily use to embellish the breaks here (I don't dare install 'em here because this computer exists precariously on the edge of collapse). 

Yesterday I noticed a new-ish writer at Rorate Caeli and found her essay interesting, meaning that in the most complimentary way possible-- as everyone knows, there is a large amount of dross online although generally speaking, and specially since it is the Catholic sites I spend lots of time at, one doesn't say that out loud (and dross is perhaps the wrong word: trivialities written about half-ignorantly or superficially, or truisms reworked as new! insights: God knows such efforts are of more intrinsic value than three quarters of what appears in the secular media and at the secular sites; but, eh, they don't require much attention or thoughtfulness-- it's like dear Aunt Gertrude who talks such utter nonsense at Thanksgiving and Christmas and Easter but one has to acknowledge at least secretly that she is doubtless replete with much grace and, well, the simple enter through the gate much more readily than the clever. She (the new Rorate writer) finds the use of wreathes as decoration near crucifixes in churches (am paraphrasing) well nigh blasphemous. I have been actually listening to Christmas carols since Christmas (have in the past mostly just had them on in the background) and noticed, perhaps for the first time, the lyrics of The Holly and the Ivy-- which a superficial perusal of sites online suggested might involve a historical, traditional, ahem, connexion between the holly and the Passion, perhaps making a wreath that featured holly not inappropriate at the foot of the crucifix. The estimable writer dismissed this possibility as (paraphrasing again) Victorian nonsense. And for all I know the texts that suggested that the carol is known from the early 18th century are just wrong &c. Anyway, the point is that I hope in the new year to keep myself from making absolute judgments about subjects I ought to know are in fact a series of contingencies susceptible to being understood in a variety of ways, some useful, some true, some pernicious, perhaps, some simply superficial and dismissible-- at least in the real living of my life in interacting with real people. 

17:40

Prayer for Happy Friendships [Laodicea]

I was recently clearing out part of the attic, and came across a tattered prayer-book. It contains a prayer for happy friendships, something which I’ve not seen elsewhere. Here it is:

   THRICE-BLESSÈD almighty Lord and God, Who hast made this world for man and rulest it still only for his good;

   Who hast established man in paradise and callest him ever into perfect amity with Thee;

   Thou who hast taught man through the holy Scriptures that the faithful friend is a sturdy shelter and a treasure beyond price, and who hast promised the boon of true friendships to such as feareth Thee;

   Thou also who didst knit together the heart of Jonathan with that of good David Thy servant, that he might love him as his own soul;

   and hast provided at the incarnation of the everlasting Word, our Lord Jesus, friends to Him that should solace and delight His earthly hours, Lazarus, whom He returned from the temporary tomb, and John, who laid his head upon our Saviour’s breast;

   grant to us, we beseech Thee, the gift of happy friendships; and teach us so amiably to foster, loyally to preserve and nobly to rejoice in them, that we may deserve to drink the new wine of Thy Kingdom with the old wine of trusted friends, in the presence of our only Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth with Thee in the unity of the Holy Ghost, world without end. Amen.


15:05

Hörtip – Vortrag von Bischof Stefan Oster [katholon]

Grafik:Peter Marquardt Quelle: wikimedia Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Grafik:Peter Marquardt
Quelle: wikimedia
Lizenz: CC BY-SA 2.0 de

Der Vortrag von Bischof Stefan Oster auf der MEHR2016 in Augsburg ist wirklich hörenswert.

Er kann als Podcast bei Radio Horeb heruntergeladen und angehört werden.

Mit einer Stunde Dauer ist er nicht gerade kurz, doch die Zeit lohnt sich.

 

14:00

Epiphany: the Festival of Adoration [Vultus Christi]

Guido_da_siena,_adorazione_dei_magiI originally preached this homily in Tegelen, The Netherlands, at the monastery of the Benedictines of Perpetual Adoration on the feast of the Epiphany 2013.

Receive the Light
The Epiphany is, in a supereminent degree, the great liturgical festival of adoration. Beginning with First Vespers, the Church invites us to receive the radiant light of Christ; the light that shines from His Face; the light that illumines all who approach Him; the light that rises over a world plunged into darkness, giving joy to those who sorrow, hope to those who despair, and truth to those deceived by every manner of idolatry and falsehood.

Arise, be enlightened, O Jerusalem: for they light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. For behold darkness shall cover the earth, and a mist the people: but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee. And the Gentiles shall walk in thy light, and kings in the brightness of thy rising. (Isaiah 60:1-3).

Compelled to Adore
When a soul perceives the light of Christ, that soul is compelled to adore. Thus do we hear in the Holy Gospel: “And entering into the house, they found the child with Mary his mother, and falling down they adored him.” (Matthew 2:11).

Into the House
There are, if you will, three moments in the grace of adoration. The first of these is the perception of the light. To see the light of Christ one must enter into the house that is the Church; from the outside, it appears, to some, small and, perhaps, confining. But when one enters the house of the Church, one discovers, from within, that it is immensely spacious. The Church is the place of the Divine Hospitality on earth. Not only is their room in the house of the Church for all; there is also pure water for cleansing; oil for the healing of every infirmity; and a banquet made ready with the living Bread come down from heaven, and with the joy-giving chalice of Christ’s Precious Blood.

Where Mary is Mother
The house of the Church is Mary’s house. Therein she is Mother: Mother, not only of Christ the Head, the Infant nourished at her breast, but also of the members of the Body of Christ, from the least to the greatest, all of whom she draws to her Immaculate Heart. Mary’s Virgin Body is the radiant monstrance of the Body of Christ; she holds Him in such a way as to show Him to us. She says to every soul who enters the house of the Church, “Arise, be enlightened, for thy light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon thee.” (Isaiah 60:1).

The Sun of Justice
The light that illumines Mary’s house, the house of the Church, shines from the adorable Body of Christ in the Most Holy Sacrament of the Altar. How can one open one’s eyes to the radiant Body of Christ, exposed in what Mother Mectilde de Bar called the soleil (sun) of the monstrance, and not see the fufilment of the words of the prophet Malachy? “The Sun of justice shall arise, and health — meaning healing and wholeness — in his wings” (Malachy 4:2)

Falling Down
The second moment in the grace of adoration is to fall down as it is written in the Gospel: “and falling down they adored him” (Matthew 2:11). What is this mysterious falling down? It is a response to the brightness of the Light; it is the first movement of one who would adore. To fall down is to attempt to become level with the ground. It is the expression of a profound desire to become very little, very lowly. It is an attempt to say with one’s whole body, that one would wish to be able to pour oneself out, to break oneself open, to allow one’s essence to be spent to the last molecule, like the precious perfume that flowed from the vase of alabaster, filling the whole house with its fragrance (John 12:3). This is what Mother Mectilde of the Holy Sacrament means when she speaks of anéantissement, and when she makes it the very condition of adoration in spirit and in truth.

Offering
The third moment in the grace of adoration is the offering of one’s gifts. “And opening their treasures, they offered him gifts; gold, frankincense, and myrrh.” These three gifts are, in fact, the symbol of the one and only gift that God desires of us: the offering of ourselves. Mother Mectilde tells us that three qualities are necessary if we are to fulfill our vocation to adoration: firstly, our adoration must be perpetual, that is ceaseless; secondly, it must be made “in spirit”, that is to say, in a spiritual manner; thirdly, it must be made in truth, that is to say, withholding nothing, surrendering all, reserving no particle of what we would offer God for ourselves. We can see these three qualities represented in the Magi’s gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrhh.

The Gold of Perpetuity
The gold represents something of perpetual value, something that has perpetual quality. What, then, does it mean to adore perpetually? Mother Mectilde says, “Our adoration must be perpetual, since it is the same God whom we adore in the Most Holy Sacrament, who is present to us in every place.”

Here we can see that Mother Mectilde’s doctrine of adoration is, in fact, a profoundly personal and life-giving interpretation of Saint Benedict’s Twelfth Degree of Humility in the Holy Rule. For Mother Mectilde, the fullest expression of adoration is humility; and the fullest expression of humility is adoration. For Mother Mectilde, humility and adoration are, in effect, synonymous. The soul who is humble will adore; and the soul who adores will become humble.

Mother Mectilde would have us adore always and everywhere: “in the work of God, in the oratory, in the monastery, in the garden, on the road, in the field or wherever a monk may be, whether sitting, walking or standing.” An adoration that is perpetual is an adoration that rises with every breath that we draw, an adoration marked by the rhythm of every heartbeat.

The Frankincense of Sacrifice in Spirit
Frankincense represents the costly spiritual sacrifice that is adoration; frankincense is the vital essence of the tree that produces it; it is, if you will, the lifeblood of the tree. The tree is slashed, and the precious essence bleeds out of it. One who would adore in spirit must be ready to be stripped and slashed, like the frankincense tree, so as to give the blood of one’s very essence in sacrifice. A sacrifice that is measured, and calculated, and weighed, is no sacrifice at all. It cannot be a spiritual sacrifice, that is one worthy of God who created us in His image and likeness to participate in the royal priesthood and in the victimhood of His Son.

The Myrrh of Truth
Myrrh represents adoration in truth. Like frankincense, it is the lifeblood of a tree, of a small thorny tree. When a tree is bled of its essence, one sees it for what it really is. So too, when a soul allows her very essence to be bled out of her in adoration, she is what she is before God. There can be no perseverance in perpetual adoration without this essential bleeding; and without it there can be no sacrifice, no victimhood worthy of the Light that, from the altar, shines before the eyes of the soul.

The Light has shone upon us. We have entered the house: Mary’s house, the house that is the Church. We have heard the Word and, now, with the Magi, but also with our Father Saint Benedict, with Mother Mectilde, and with all the men and and women who have ever adored perpetually, and in spirit, and in truth, we have only to fall down, joining our adoration to theirs, and consenting that, by the mystic overshadowing of the Holy Ghost in this Holy Mass, over the oblations of bread, and wine, and of ourselves, our adoration be consecrated in spirit and in truth.

13:00

Der Abt und sein Ego – Die Zukunft von Abt Franziskus [et nunc]

Abt Franziskus Heereman OSB wird 70 Jahre und tritt zurück. Sein Nachfolger wurde bereits am 5. Oktober 2015, also lange vor dem offiziellen Ende des Abbatiates am 7. März 2016, gewählt.

„Was macht ein zurückgetretener Abt?
Ein Alt-Abt bleibt weiterhin Mönch seines Klosters und kann einen anderen Dienst in der Gemeinschaft übernehmen. Normalerweise geht er für einige Zeit weg, um Abstand von seinem Leitungsamt zu gewinnen und um seinen Nachfolger ‚nicht im Weg zu stehen‘.“

„Das hat sich im Verlauf der letzten Jahrzehnte als sehr sinnvoll erwiesen.“ – schreibt Abt Franziskus in der Hauszeitschrift der Abtei Neuburg ‚Wort in die Zeit‘ (Heft 203). Doch gilt das auch für ihn selbst? Lassen wir ihn zu Wort kommen:

 „Zuerst hatte ich keine andere Idee, als diese Zeit in Beuron zu verbringen und von dort aus die bereits angenommenen Termine wahrzunehmen. Dann kam aber vor einigen Monaten die Anfrage des Limburger Domkapitels [Anmerkung: hört, hört], ob ich mir vorstellen könnte, für einige Zeit in seinem Bistum tätig zu sein. Von Firmungen war die Rede.
[Anmerkung: die folgen Sätze wurden vor mir in Zeilen gesetzt]
Aber ich solle auch auf andere Weise für das Bistum da sein.
Eine genaue Umschreibung dieses Auftrages war nicht leicht zu bekommen.
Im Grunde sind die Gespräche auch jetzt noch nicht abgeschlossen.
Ich selbst habe aber schon einiges arrangiert.
Ich werde die Zeit meiner Abwesenheit von Neuburg in Frankfurt verbringen.
Dort habe ich bereits eine kleine Wohnung in zentraler und doch ruhiger Lage an der Hand.
Ich möchte dort nicht primär als seelsorgliche Aushilfskraft tätig sein, wenn ich auch zu Firmungen und anderen Diensten bereit sein werde.
Im Mittelpunkt steht für mich aber der Wunsch, als Mönch in der Stadt zu leben.
Ich lebe jetzt 45 Jahre in einer Gemeinschaft und habe über dreißig Jahre eine Leitungsaufgabe wahrgenommen.
Nun möchte ich erfahren, wie es ist, auf mich allein gestellt zu sein.
Was wird da mit meinem Mönchsein geschehen?
Wie werde ich mich in der Großstadt zurechtfinden?
Habe ich überhaupt das Zeug zu einem Leben ohne die „Stützräder" der Gemeinschaft.
Ich habe auch das Gefühl, dass sich in unserer Gesellschaft so viel verändert hat, dass unsere Weise des Mönchtums sich der Frage stellen muss, ob es überhaupt in dieser Form noch in unsere Zeit passt. Vielleicht gibt es da draußen Erfahrungen und Sehnsüchte, an die wir anknüpfen sollten und könnten, ohne uns selbst zu verraten. Dafür möchte ich offen werden und in die Gestaltung unseres Weges einbringen. Ob und wie mir das gelingen wird, kann ich heute noch nicht sagen. Bequem wird es nicht werden.
Ich werde an äußere und innere Grenzen stoßen, aber das muss nicht das Ende sein.
Ich bin auf jeden Fall gespannt, was diese Zeit mit mir machen wird, und viele sind es mit mir.“

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12:47

Traditionelle und moderne Logik. Teil 2 [Scholastiker]


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Im ersten Teil des Blogbeitrags über den Unterschied zwischen der traditionellen, aristotelischen Logik und der modernen mathematischen Logik habe ich versucht zu zeigen, dass sich beide Arten der Logik in verschiedenen Hinsichten unterscheiden. Beide Systeme der Logik beruhen auf unterschiedlichen Hintergrundannahmen, sie unterscheiden sich weiterhin durch die Struktur der Systeme und drittens hinsichtlich des Zwecks. Grundlegend ist bei allen drei Hinsichten die zugrundeliegende Metaphysik. In diesem zweiten Teil möchte ich die Unterschiede deutlicher herausarbeiten und zwar anhand der für die moderne Logik typischen Wahrheitstafeln



Wahrheitstafeln

Die Wahrheitstabellen wurden von dem Philosophen Ludwig Wittgenstein in der Logik eingeführt. Er führte sie zum Zweck der Flankierung des Kalküls ein, in das die moderne Logik verwandelt wurde. Die moderne Logik ist durchgängig nach dem Modell des mathematischen Kalküls entwickelt worden und hierzu wurden die Wahrheitstafeln hinzugefügt, um schnell die Wahrheit eines Kalküls von einfachen und insbesondere von komplexen logischen Propositionen bzw. Formeln prüfen zu können.

Nehmen wir zur Demonstration eine einfache Aussage:

Eine Woche hat sieben Tage und ein Tag hat 24 Stunden.

Aussagenlogisch können wir die beiden Teilsätze mit beliebigen großen Buchstaben formalisieren. Die Verbindung der beiden Teilsätze mit dem Wort „und“ kann durch das Symbol „&“ dargestellt werden. Dann ergibt sich die folgende Formalisierung des Satzes:

A & B

Nun stellt sich die Frage, wie wir die Wahrheit dieses Satzes herausfinden können. In der modernen Logik gibt es hierzu ein einfaches Verfahren. Der „Wahrheitswert“, also „wahr“ oder „falsch“, wird bestimmt durch die Elemente, durch die der Satz gebildet wird, also in unserem Beispiel durch A und B. Wir wissen ohne viel darüber nachdenken zu müssen, dass der Satz „A & B“ nur dann wahr ist, wenn die beiden Teilsätze wahr sind. Wenn es zutrifft, dass die Woche aus sieben Tagen besteht und wenn es ebenso wahr ist, dass ein Tag aus 24 Stunden besteht, dann ist der ganze Satz wahr. Wenn hingegen eine der beiden Teilsätze falsch ist, dann ist die Aussage als ganze falsch. 

Dies lässt sich nun in einer Wahrheitstabelle darstellen. Dazu werden alle Möglichkeiten der Wahrheit der Teilsätze aufgelistet:

A   B    A & B
W  W       W
W  F         F
F  W         F
F  F          F

Zur Erläuterung: Wir haben zwei Sätze, nämlich die Sätze A und B. Entweder sind beide Sätze wahr, oder beide Sätze sind falsch oder ein Satz ist wahr und der andere ist falsch. Außer in dem Fall, wo beide Teilsätze wahr sind, ist in allen drei anderen Fällen der „und“-Satz falsch. Daraus ergibt sich die Definition für die Konjunktion: Eine Konjunktion ist genau dann wahr, wenn beide Teilsätze wahr sind.

Diese Einsicht leuchtet uns intuitiv ein und es ist eigentlich nicht nötig in solchen einfachen Fällen Wahrheitstabellen einzuführen. Schwieriger wird dies allerdings bei komplexeren Aussagen wie z.B. der Aussage: „A und [B oder (wenn C, dann E)]. Bei solchen komplexen Sätzen können Wahrheitstafeln tatsächlich auf einfache Weise den Wahrheitswert der Aussage kalkulieren.

Wenn dem so ist, dann stellt sich die Frage, warum die traditionelle Logik keine Wahrheitstafeln verwendet. Darauf gibt es sowohl eine praktische, als auch eine theoretische Antwort und Letztere ist entscheidend. 

Beginnen wir mit dem praktischen Grund, warum in der aristotelischen Logik keine Wahrheitstabellen angewandt werden.

Wahrheitstafeln spielen für die philosophische Logik kaum eine Rolle

Obwohl Wahrheitstabellen in bestimmten Kontexten durchaus einen gewissen praktischen, d.h. technischen Nutzen haben, sind sie für tatsächliche Argumentation in der Philosophie oder auch in anderen Bereichen, wo argumentiert wird, wenig nützlich. Die meisten Aussagen, die im alltäglichen Reden oder auch in akademischen Diskussionen verwendet werden, haben wohl kaum die Komplexität, die die Einführung von Wahrheitstafeln erfordert. In bestimmten wissenschaftlichen Anwendungen, wie in der Mathematik oder auch in der Computerprogrammierung, die das hauptsächliche Anwendungsgebiet der modernen Logik ist, sind Wahrheitstafeln durchaus hilfreich, selten jedoch in alltäglicher oder wissenschaftlicher Argumentation.

Die 19 gültigen Syllogismen der traditionellen aristotelischen Logik kann man lernen, ohne jede Bezugnahme auf Wahrheitstafeln und diese Syllogismen reichen aus, um alle alltäglichen und akademischen Diskussionen zu bestreiten. Wirkliche Argumente im akademischen Bereich werden geleitet oder sind reduzierbar auf eine kategoriale Argumentation. In einer solchen kategorialen Argumentation geht es vor allem um die Begriffe, man argumentiert auf der Grundlage von Beziehungen zwischen individuellen Begriffen. Begriffe sind aber weder wahr noch falsch. Wahrheitstafeln sind nur anwendbar bei hypothetischer Argumentation, die ihr Fundament nicht in Begriffen, sondern in Beziehungen zwischen Aussagen (Propositionen) hat. 

Soviel zum praktischen Nutzen der Wahrheitstafeln. Kommen wir nun zum eigentlichen Kern der Kritik an den Wahrheitstafeln.

Wahrheitsfunktionalität

Warum die Wahrheitstafeln nicht in der traditionellen Logik verwendet werden, hat mit der sogenannten „Wahrheitsfunktionalität“ zu tun. Darunter versteht man, dass der Wahrheitswert eines zusammengesetzten Satzes eindeutig durch die Wahrheitswerte seiner Teilsätze bestimmt ist. Mit anderen Worten: Die Wahrheit oder Falschheit der Teilsätze sagt uns, ob der ganze Satz wahr oder falsch ist.

Am Beispiel unseres obigen Satzes erläutert: Die Wahrheit des Satzes „A & B“ hängt ab von der Wahrheit des Satzes „A“ und des Satzes „B“, d.h. von den Komponenten, aus denen der Satz besteht. Der Satz „A & B“ wird als „konjunktive Aussage“ bezeichnet, denn die Aussage verbindet A und B. Traditionelle Logiker sind der Auffassung, dass konjunktive Aussagen die einzige Art von Aussagen sind, deren Wahrheit in Wahrheitstafeln aufgelöst werden kann, d.h. die einzige Art von Sätzen, die wahrheitsfunktional sind. Keine andere Art von Sätzen, wie Satzverbindungen mit „oder“, „wenn, dann“ usw. ist in diesem Sinne wahrheitsfunktional. 

Diese Auffassung der traditionellen Logiker beruht auf einer anderen Theorie über Sprache und Wirklichkeit. Um dies verständlich zu machen, nehmen wir als Beispiel einen Konditionalsatz:

Wenn es regnet, dann wird die Straße nass.

Dieser Satz lässt sich in formaler Ausdrucksweise folgendermaßen darstellen (wobei à für „wenn – dann“ steht):

A & B

Wenden wir hier wieder die Wahrheitstabelle an, dann ergibt sich folgendes Schema:

A & B
W W W
W  F  F
F  W  W
F  W  F

Das bedeutet, dass dieser Satz immer wahr ist, außer in dem Fall, dass der Vordersatz (Antezedens) wahr und der Nachsatz (Konsequenz) falsch ist. Nehmen wir an, es regnet draußen und die Straße ist nass. In diesem Fall (erste Zeile) ist der ganze Satz wahr. Doch nehmen wir an, dass es regnet und die Straße ist durch irgendetwas abgedeckt – eine Plane liegt über der Straße oder ähnliches – und die Straße ist nicht nass. In diesem Fall ist es richtig zu sagen, dass es regnet, aber es wäre falsch zu sagen, dass die Straße nass ist. Daher wäre der Satz als Ganzes falsch.

Doch wie verhält es sich nun mit den beiden anderen Möglichkeiten? Wenn es nicht regnet und die Straße ist trotzdem nass (in der dritten Zeile wird der Satz A = Es regnet, als falsch angenommen, also regnet es nicht)? Warum ist der Satz in diesem Fall wahr? Eine gute Erklärung dafür gibt es nicht und wenn man Logik unterrichtet, stößt man immer wieder auf Einwände von Seiten der Studierenden, die dies nicht verstehen. 

Dieses Unverständnis hängt weniger damit zusammen, dass solche Sätze besonders kompliziert sind, sondern weil die Behandlung solcher Konditionalsätze in der modernen Logik selbst problematisch ist. Dies verhält sich in der traditionellen Logik anders.

In der aristotelischen Logik werden Konditionalsätze nur dann als wahr behandelt, wenn die Tatsache, dass die Straße nass ist, wirklich besteht und zwar deshalb, weil es regnet. Nur dann, wenn eine logische Beziehung besteht zwischen den Regen und der nassen Straße, ist der Satz wahr. Die Tatsache, dass es regnet, muss gewissermaßen materiellbeinhalten, dass die Straße nass ist.

Und hier zeigt sich ein zentraler Unterschied zwischen traditioneller und moderner Logik. In modernen logischen Systemen ist eine reale, wirkliche Beziehung zwischen A und B nicht erforderlich. Das einzige was erforderlich ist, ist das der Nachsatz (Konsequenz) nicht falsch ist, wenn das Antezedens wahr ist. Außer in diesen Fall ist der Satz immer wahr. Dies ist so unabhängig von allen realen Verhältnissen in der Welt. Deshalb kann man in der modernen Logik auch völlig sinnlose konditionale Sätze verwenden, die gleichwohl wahr sind, weil es bei der Beziehung zwischen den Teilsätzen nicht um eine reale oder genauer gesagt, nicht um eine kausale Beziehung geht. So ist der Satz:

Wenn der Mond aus Käse besteht, dann können Vögel fliegen

ein logisch wahrer Satz, denn das Antezedens ist falsch und das Konsequenz ist wahr und somit ist der Satz als Ganzes wahr, obwohl es keinerlei logische oder reale Beziehung zwischen den beiden Teilsätzen gibt.

Das Gleiche gilt natürlich auch für alle anderen Sätze bzw. Satzverbindung, wie

Peter fährt mit dem Fahrrad und in China fällt ein Sack Reis um

ein Satz, bei dem zwischen den beiden konjunktiven Gliedern kein logischer, realer oder materialer Zusammenhang besteht.

In der traditionellen Logik sind hingegen nur solche Sätze gültig und logisch wahr, bei denen ein logischer oder sonstiger Zusammenhang zwischen den Satzgliedern besteht. Bei Konditionalsätzen ist dieser Zusammenhang ein notwendiger. Der Zusammenhang muss hier entweder ein solcher von Ursache und Wirkung sein oder von Grund und Folge. Zwischen dem Regen und die nasse Straße besteht eine fundamentale metaphysische Relation, nämlich die von Ursache und Wirkung. Die Annahme im Hintergrund der modernen Logik ist, dass es entweder solche Beziehungen nicht gibt oder dass sie zumindest in einem System der Logik keine Rolle spielen dürfen. Über die moderne, durch Hume und Kant beeinflusste Auffassung über Kausalität habe ich in diesem Blog bereits häufiger geschrieben.


Die moderne Logik beruht auf einer falschen Metaphysik

Der metaphysische Background der modernen Logik ist, dass es ihr um die Quantifizierung der Realität geht. Moderne und traditionelle Logik haben einen völlig verschiedenen philosophischen Hintergrund. Während der aristotelische Logik ihre metaphysische Grundlage in einem echten Essentialismus hat, beruht die moderne Logik auf einer Metaphysik, die auf die mechanistische, rein quantitativ-mathematischen Philosophie der Neuzeit zurückgeht (René Descartes, Galilei, Newton etc.) und zur Grundlage der modernen Naturwissenschaften wurde. Daher versucht die moderne Logik auch, die gesamte Logik in ein Kalkül zu verwandeln. Dies war bereits der Traum von Leibniz, dem dies aber noch nicht in der Praxis gelang, was dann von Frege, Russell, Whitehead, Wittgenstein und anderen realisiert wurde.

Die traditionelle Logik versucht hingegen nicht die Logik in ein quantitatives, mathematisches Kalkül zu verwandeln, besonders deshalb nicht, weil sie die Logik als eine linguistische und metaphysische Kunst betrachtet und nicht als ein technisch-mathematisches Kalkül. Während die moderne Logik eine rein extensionaleLogik ist, verbindet die traditionelle Logik extensionale und intensionale Aspekte, quantitative und qualitative Aspekte der menschlichen Sprache.

Deshalb weist die traditionelle Logik die Versuche der modernen Logik zurück, die Sprache zu quantifizieren. Logik ist nach traditioneller Auffassung wesentlich qualitativ und am Wort orientiert und die Versuche zur Quantifizierung der Sprache führen nur zu einer Verzerrung des Argumentationsprozesses.

Der einzige Weg um die Logik in ein mathematisches Kalkül zu verwandeln besteht in der Bestreitung der wesentlichen metaphysischen Natur der Welt, die von der Logik widergespielt werden muss. Man muss bestreiten, dass es Wesenheiten gibt, die die Grundlage der gesamten Realität darstellen. Diese Verneinung der Realität von Wesenheiten geht natürlich nicht auf die modernen Logiker zurück, sondern hat ihr Fundament bereits im spätmittelalterlichen Nominalismus (William von Occam) und dann in der neuzeitlichen Philosophie, die entweder empiristisch oder rationalistisch geprägt ist.


Quantifizierung in der Prädikatenlogik

Ein letztes Problem, dass ich zumindest noch erwähnen möchte, besteht in der sogenannten Quantifizierung in der Prädikatenlogik. Sätze wie 

Menschen haben 32 Zähne

können in der modernen Logik nicht in ihrem Sinngehalt wiedergegeben werden. Denn für die Prädikatenlogik gibt es hier nur zwei Möglichkeiten diesen Satz auszudrücken:

Für alle x: Wenn x ein Mensch ist, dann hat x 32 Zähne.

Dieser Satz ist eindeutig falsch, denn ich und viele meiner Leser haben keine 32 Zähne mehr und sind dennoch Menschen. Die andere Form der Formalisierung lautet:

Für mindestens ein x: x hat 32 Zähne

Auch dieser Satz gibt nicht das wieder, was man sagen will, wenn man behauptet, dass Menschen 32 Zähne haben. Mit diesem Satz will man nämlich eine wesentliche Eigenschaftvon Menschen im Sinne der Gattung Mensch aussagen. Auch wenn ein Mensch nur noch drei Zähne hat, ist der Satz, dass Menschen 32 Zähne haben nicht falsch.

Es gibt noch zahlreiche weitere Schwächen der modernen Logik, doch diese hängen letztlich alle mit einer falschen Metaphysik zusammen. Alles dies bedeutet freilich nicht, dass man die moderne Logik nicht studieren und nicht in philosophischen Debatten anwenden sollte. Doch man sollte sich des metaphysischen Hintergrunds stets bewusst sein um Fehler zu vermeiden.

11:33

1000 young immigrant men attack German women in Cologne [Oz Conservative]

News is coming through of events in the Germany city of Cologne on New Year's Eve. A group of 1000 men of North African origin gathered near the main railway station, threw firecrackers into the crowd and then used the disturbance to rob the locals and to sexually assault a large number of German women. There appear to have been at least 35 sexual assaults. Cologne's police chief described it as "a completely new dimension of crime".

The incident is now being reported in the mainstream media. You can find reports here, here and here.

Update: According to the latest reports, there were 2000 men of north African origin involved; similar incidents have occurred in Hamburg and Stuttgart; and a town councillor has warned that the areas around the main railway station and the famous cathedral in Cologne should now be considered "no-go" areas.

11:15

Aller Tage Morgen [et nunc]

Wenn man Neujahrswünsche beherzigt, erscheint ein diffuses Bild. [...]

Vielleicht ist das alte Europa zu müde, als sei in dieser Welt schon aller Tage Abend. [...]

Wer weiß:
Vielleicht verlegt der Papst, nach der Heiligsprechung von Mutter Teresa,
den Vatikan in die Slums von Kalkutta.

Freddy Derwahl: 30.12.2016
grenzecho.net
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God's mistake? [Oz Conservative]

The transsexual issue is big at the moment. My main concern is that the issue is being used by liberals to further attack the significance of our biological sex - the fact of being born a man or a woman and what this means for our identity and our way of being.

However, another concern is that children are being encouraged to change sexes. I've been reading the life story of an American woman called Rachel Reiland and it illustrates the dangers involved here. Rachel Reiland tells early on in her book that she believed she had been born in the wrong body:

I wasn't like the other little girls. I hated dolls and other “girly,” pink toys. I hated being a girl more than anything. I wasn't any good at it. If I had been a boy, things would have been different. But somehow God put me into a girl's body by mistake. I wondered if I would go to hell for daring to think God made a mistake.

You might think from reading this that Rachel Reiland might be a candidate for the sex change procedures that are currently being encouraged and that this would then solve "God's mistake".

Rachel Reiland grew up, married, had children and then had a mental health collapse. She went to see a psychiatrist who was clever enough to recognise what the real, underlying problem was. The "gender dysphoria" was a symptom of something else, namely a condition called borderline personality disorder, which is thought to affect about 5% of the population.

With the help of her capable psychiatrist, and intensive therapy, she eventually recovered. The point to be made is that if she had undergone a sex reassignment it would not have cured what was really ailing her. She would still have suffered from a confusion in her identity; from periods of dissociation; from a sense of not fitting in; from periods of depression; and from a sense of failure in life - as these stem from the borderline disorder and not from chromosomal issues.

10:41

Authentic accompaniment in an age of two fisted piano playing. [Catholic Sacristan]

For all the talk of accompaniment, i.e, accompanying sinners along the road of life, musicians perhaps have a better sense of the term than most theologians who, with a few notable exceptions, are not as well versed in the art of collaborative encounter as they could be. Perhaps 'bishop school' could impart some of the wisdom found in the musical arts to help bishops better form their respective symphonies (dioceses) in the art of communion in Christ.

The intimacy of the bridal chamber.

In the realm of chamber music, where the number of performers is typically few—e.g., duos, piano trios, string and saxophone quartets, woodwind and brass quintets and so forth—there is little or no need for a conductor. With or without a conductor, said musicians must realize the score with fidelity to the intention of the composer as communicated through the detailed architecture of the score.

Musicians and composer merge in and through the realization of the score.

At times, false dichotomies occur between musicians themselves when, for example, a part of the ensemble is relegated to the sole role of accompaniment. It may be that the melody is given to one or more instruments or voices. One must be careful not to diminish, however, one part by elevating another beyond that which rightly maintains the intent of the composer and the organizational integrity of the composition. Accompaniment is complementary, not merely complimentary. Musicians complement each other in and through the music, and in an authentic encounter the musicians become something more than the mere sum of the people present. Personalities merge; distinctions continue, but harmony arises. Harmony is diversity in unity. Real harmony is clearly understood by those who possess the 'ear' for it.


When a solo violinist or flautist fails to acknowledge his or her dependence on, say, the supporting pianist performing with him or her a violin or flute sonata, so named because the flute or violin is given prominence, collaboration may be reduced to a mere caricature and the "accompaniment" not understood in its proper light. Omitting the soloist's dependence on the "accompaniment", what appears to be artistry might be, then, more puppetry, a mere reproduction of the soloist's narrow inclinations more than a spontaneous conversation between performers which constitutes an authentic realization of the score. Of course, some pieces are written with technically very simple "accompaniment" and lavish solo parts. Those compositions might be judged differently than compositions which are written in a manner that allows both performers to share fairly in a dialogue. However, simplicity of gesture or part is not license to ignore the nuances of expression—time or pacing, dynamics, phrase shape, timbre, etc.—which are part of every great presentation. If anything, simplicity and silence require even more attention than flashy or extravagant compositions which can tease listeners past subtler aspects of music.

Beauty in the making, pain in the process and the birth of beauty.

A helpful word to overcome unnecessary division between musical forces while retaining harmonious distinctions is the word collaboration, i.e., to labour together. An expectant mother about to give birth to her child knows labour pain. Musicians labour together to produce a musical offspring. Both encounters, baby making and music making, require intimacy: physical intimacy in the case of the former; psychological and spiritual intimacy united to physical effort in the case of the latter. Of course, the loving union of a man and woman, if it be a true communion, is a sign of spiritual, psychological and physical union in Christ. When musicians bring artistry and honesty to rehearsal, the result is the birth of beauty.

Unfortunately, not all musicians share an appreciation for historical performance practice. That is, a realization of the score according to the norms of a given period or sensitivity to a compositional language or style. Nuance can be covered over with egotistical accretions which miss the nuanced embodiment of a composer's intent. Certainly, a great composition can transcend its time. That said, changing a work's performance practice without due consideration of its historical biography could constitute an abasement of said composition.

Missing the necessity of doctrine (the score and performance practice), it is all too easy to invent a pathway that may or may not be configured to the road map (the Holy Gospel) given us by Jesus Christ. We depend upon informed masters (orthodox theologians) and ultimately upon the Spirit guided Magisterium of the Church to help us form our consciences and to acquire and remain in the saving knowledge of Jesus Christ.

A symphony of performers.

A symphony has a conductor. The performers rely on the conductor to unify them in the realization of a composition. At times, the performers might begrudge a conductor his or her artistic choices and/or status. Nevertheless, the players are unified in their agreement (or fear of messing things up royally!) that they must follow the conductor in order for any realization of the score to be achieved.

A symphony, i.e., the ensemble, can be an interesting collection of personalities. Such an ensemble can consist of individuals who do not get along outside of rehearsals and who do not speak or barely speak to members in other sections. And yet, beautiful music can be made because, when the performance begins, each player puts aside his or her extra-musical inclinations and surrenders to the music. Of course, the person at the helm must be dedicated to serving the music and must possess the necessary skill and depth of knowledge to properly realize the musical score. That captain of the ship is the conductor.

When the conductor is well prepared, the performers know it. If a conductor is incompetent, players tend to ignore any confusing gestures or bizarre interpretations and leadership shifts to a section leader (first chair) or another unifying element such as a percussion part that provides necessary stability and or clarity. If the conductor is unfit, rebellion ensues. If a bishop or priest is unfit for duty—i.e., if he is a teacher of confused and confused doctrine or a purveyor of immorality—then it seems understandable that the people should make the necessary and appropriate expressions of concern and, if no other solution can be found, request of Rome that a bishop or priest be removed for his conduct unbecoming a conductor of the symphony (diocese; parish).

Accompaniment
«The Church will have to initiate everyone—priests, religious and laity—into this “art of accompaniment” which teaches us to remove our sandals before the sacred ground of the other (cf. Ex 3:5). The pace of this accompaniment must be steady and reassuring, reflecting our closeness and our compassionate gaze which also heals, liberates and encourages growth in the Christian life», we read in No. 169 of Pope Francis’ Apostolic Exhortation of “Evangelii Gaudium.” And No. 171 says: «Today more than ever we need men and women who, on the basis of their experience of accompanying others, are familiar with processes which call for prudence, understanding, patience and docility to the Spirit, so that they can protect the sheep from wolves who would scatter the flock. We need to practice the art of listening, which is more than simply hearing. Listening, in communication, is an openness of heart which makes possible that closeness without which genuine spiritual encounter cannot occur».The Art of Accompaniment [source/link]
The Church proposes; God disposes.

When accompanying others along the road to salvation, it is necessary to listen first and meet them where they are at on their journey and, by carefully discerning the vital nuances of their sense of the journey lived thus far, gently (and perhaps firmly) call them out of distractions and obstacles (sin) to join the company of Jesus on the pathway of hope and to eternal life. One must use language which invites inquiry, identifies obstacles to spiritual (including moral) and physical well being and, yes, language which challenges one to consider the better choice of a life with Jesus for all eternity. Of course, one can only lead another if one is being led by Jesus and His Church.

When all is said and done, the choice to accept or deny the invitation of the Lord is between the Holy Spirit and the individual who has been given the opportunity to encounter Jesus in His Church, in the Holy Gospel and most visibly in Christ's Sacraments.

Christmas teaches us that God cooperates with us by becoming vulnerable. Can we do any less in response to His invitation to encounter and communion?

We must be confident that though imperfect vessels we may be, we must trust always that others are in the care of the Holy Spirit. 'Not my will but God's will be done' is the first and last prayer of every disciple.

Sometimes we can give a poor witness to the Gospel. God, however, can make perfect use of our imperfect witness. An imperfect performance of Samuel Barber's Adagio (from the Quartet or the string orchestra arrangement) will still reach deeply into the searching soul. A few wrong notes or rhythms do not have to hinder the journey of another. We must strive to be credible witnesses, but we must ultimate admit that our witness depends wholly upon the grace of God.

We must trust in the grace and mercy of God to provide that which is necessary to complete our inadequate attempts to foster communion between people and Jesus Christ and His one, holy, catholic and apostolic Church founded upon Saint Peter.

08:00

Yelling at College Kids [The Jesuit Post]

We’re in the middle of the College Football Playoff, which can only mean one thing: an outbreak of SGAAYACK Disorder. You have to see this:

(Warning: language. The harshest language is bleeped out, but it doesn’t leave much to the imagination.)

That hits a little too close to home. Realizing that I, too, have experienced “mood swings based on the actions of strangers who can’t even legally drink” makes me question aspects of my sports fandom.

And perhaps this questioning isn’t a bad thing.

Earlier this year, in what seemed like a near-certain Michigan win, Wolverines punter Blake O’Neill made a horrible mistake on the final play of the game, which resulted in a Michigan State victory.

As one who has cheered for two Michigan rivals1 my whole life, I’ll admit that I was initially pretty happy. But then it got ugly. The darkest corners of the Twitterverse reared their heads, telling O’Neill to kill himself in gruesome fashion.

The thing is, O’Neill had a fantastic game for the first 59:50, including an 80-yard punt. And then he made one ugly mistake. In front of 109,901 fans. And millions others watching live. And many others seeing the inevitable GIFs of the botched punt.

I make mistakes all the time. Mercifully, others aren’t around to see most of them or turn them into GIFs.2

***

The eyes of millions of football fans will be on a bunch of 18- to 22-year-olds from Clemson and Alabama on January 11. I do not envy the pressure they will face.

Having seen the ugliness of SGAAYACK, I will be checking out the game but also checking my own emotions. Football is fun, but my life shouldn’t be affected by a game played by strangers who aren’t old enough to drink.3

–//–

The cover image from Flickr user Rhett Maxwell can be found here.

05:30

Greek Orthodox Music in Ottoman Istanbul [Eastern Christian Books]

For the Greeks, Ottomans, and musicians in your life: Indiana University Press is set to release today, January 2nd, a new study that you will want to order as a continuing celebration of Christmas, or perhaps a pre-Theophany gift. In any event, it is a welcome study in an area that has long cried out for more research: Orthodox music in all its diversity. 

Merih Erol, Greek Orthodox Music in Ottoman Istanbul: Nation and Community in the Era of Reform (IU Press, 2016), 288pp.



About this book we are told:
During the late Ottoman period (1856–1922), a time of contestation about imperial policy toward minority groups, music helped the Ottoman Greeks in Istanbul define themselves as a distinct cultural group. A part of the largest non-Muslim minority within a multi-ethnic and multi-religious empire, the Greek Orthodox educated elite engaged in heated discussions about their cultural identity, Byzantine heritage, and prospects for the future, at the heart of which were debates about the place of traditional liturgical music in a community that was confronting modernity and westernization. Merih Erol draws on archival evidence from ecclesiastical and lay sources dealing with understandings of Byzantine music and history, forms of religious chanting, the life stories of individual cantors, and other popular and scholarly sources of the period. Audio examples keyed to the text are available online.

01:00

Gebet um einen neuen Bischof [et nunc]

Eine Gruppe von Gläubigen im Bistum Aachen beten während der Vakanz des Bischofsstuhls dieses Gebet:

Herr Jesus Christus, Du hast die Apostel und ihre Nachfolger zu Hirten der Kirche berufen.
Dir vertrauen wir gerade jetzt unser Bistum an und bitten Dich um einen guten neuen Bischof,
in dem das Feuer des heiligen Geistes lebendig,
und in Freude des Evangeliums spürbar ist,
der uns mit der Liebe des guten Hirten stärkt,
der die Zeichen der Zeit aufmerksam wahrnimmt,
der die Gläubigen eint und sie ermahnt, auf Gottes Ruf zu hören.
Öffne unsere Herzen, damit wir gemeinsam mit unserem neuen Bischof
die vor uns liegenden Herausforderungen angehen und
auf dem Weg voranschreiten, den DU für die Kirche von Aachen bereitet hast.
Du selbst bist der Weg, die Wahrheit und das Leben.
Dir sei Lob und Dank in Ewigkeit Amen.

Maria, Kaiserin von Aachen, bitte für uns!

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00:03

Masonic Press Attacks Franciscans of the Immaculate [The Eponymous Flower]

Edit: a reader sent this. The persecution of the Franciscans of the Immaculate continues with the usual kinds of attacks that have been going on as long as the press has been around. The kinds of penitential practices being criticized here are common to authentic religious life and the religious who suffer them are members of these religious communities of their own free will.

Why do non-catholic entities always set themselves up as judges of Catholics? What's worse is that evil and worldly hierarchy are inclined to listen to them.

[Daily Mail] In an interview with an Italian newspaper where she makes the damaging allegations, the former nun shows off a post card with her vows, signed by the head of the order. She claims the vows were written using in her own blood, on the day of her initiation in 1996, when she was 17 years old.

'Father Manelli [head of the order] was satisfied that we did this practice because it made our love for God more authentic, this eternal vow with God…made with blood,' she told Correriere Della Sera. 'All the practices related to expired food are true – expired yogurt or corned beef for example. We were told that if we ate that food with obedience nothing would have happened… but that’s not true because I had many stomach aches and abdomen pains.'

'All the practices related to expired food are true – expired yogurt or corned beef for example. We were told that if we ate that food with obedience nothing would have happened… but that’s not true because I had many stomach aches and abdomen pains.'

Daily Mail... AMDG

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AKA Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Aleteia.org XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Andrew Cusack XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Arimathea Atom Feed XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Athanasius Contra Mundum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Australia Incognita XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Barnhardt XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Beiboot Petri XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Biblical Evidence for Catholicism XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
BRUNONIS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Called to Communion XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Cardinal Newman Society All Posts XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Answers XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Faith and Reason - Our Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Sacristan XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicCulture.org - Commentary on Catholic News and World Affairs XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicCulture.org - In Depth Analysis of Catholic Issues XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicHerald.co.uk » CatholicHerald.co.uk XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Charlotte was Both XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Chiesa - XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA - Daily Readings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA - Saint of the Day XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA Daily News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA Daily News - Vatican XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Movie Reviews XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Top Stories XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Vatican News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Commentary - thomistica XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Community in Mission XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Comunión Tradicionalista XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Corpus Christi Watershed news XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Creative Minority Report XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CRISTIANDAD XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Cum Lazaro XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
David Scott Writings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Denzinger-Katholik XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Diligite iustitiam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dom Donald's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dominicana XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dominus mihi adjutor XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dyspeptic Mutterings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Eastern Christian Books XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Edinburgh Housewife XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Edward Feser XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
et nunc XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Ethika Politika XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
EUCist News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Faithful Answers XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
For the Queen XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr Hunwicke's Mutual Enrichment XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr Ray Blake's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr. Z's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Galileo Was Wrong XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Gratia Super Naturam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
History of Interpretation XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
https://creamcitycatholic.com/feed/ XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
I Have to Sit Down XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
iBenedictines XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
IDLE SPECULATIONS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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In the Light of the Law XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Incarnation and Modernity XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Infallible Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Instaurare Omnia in Christo - The Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Jimmy Akin XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
John G. Brungardt, Ph.L. XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
John V. Gerardi XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Just Thomism XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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Laodicea XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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Le blog d'Yves Daoudal XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Lectio Divina Notes XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
LES FEMMES - THE TRUTH XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Lex Christianorum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Ley Natural XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Little Flower Farm XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
LMS Chairman XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Loved As If XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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Mary Victrix XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Mathias von Gersdorff XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Musings of a Pertinacious Papist XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Liturgical Movement XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Sherwood XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Song XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
News - thomistica XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
NICK'S CATHOLIC BLOG XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
One Mad Mom XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
OnePeterFive XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Opus Publicum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Over the Rhine and Into the Tiber XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Oz Conservative XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Paths of Love XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Psallam Domino XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RORATE CÆLI XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RSS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Sancrucensis XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Scholastiker XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Semiduplex XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Siris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Spirit of Teuchtar II XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Conleth's Catholic Heritage Association XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Peter's List XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Steeple and State XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Symposium XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tęsknota XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Taylor Marshall XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tea at Trianon XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
That The Bones You Have Crushed May Thrill XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The American Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Badger Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Dormitory XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Thing XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The City and the World XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Daily Register XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Deacon's Bench XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Divine Lamp XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Eponymous Flower XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The hermeneutic of continuity XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Jesuit Post XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Josias XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Lepanto Institute XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Low Churchman's Guide to the Solemn High Mass XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Paraphasic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Prosblogion XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Rad Trad XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Remnant Newspaper - The Remnant Newspaper - Remnant Articles XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sacred Page XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sensible Bond XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The TOF Spot XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Theological Flint XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
totaliter aliter XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Traditional Catholic Priest XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Transalpine Redemptorists at home XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unam Sanctam Catholicam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unequally Yoked XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Voice of the Family XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vox Cantoris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vultus Christi XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Whispers in the Loggia XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Zippy Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
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