Saturday, 09 January

23:55

Papal Trips and "Cancelled" Events -- Marian Appearances of 2017: 300 Years of Aparacida, 100 Years of Fatima [The Eponymous Flower]


Francis in Paraguay: Will the Pope Visit His Homeland in Argentina?

(Rome) From the 12th to the 18th of February Pope Francis will visit Mexico. Currently, there is speculation about further destinations of the Pope. This is due to the publication of the calendar of papal celebrations for the first half of 2016. The publication was carried out by the Pontifical House. Of note is the "canceled" anniversary.

Popal travels serve to the "strengthen brothers." They are also opportunities to bring particular Churches on track and to garner support. The latter was the case in the trip to Africa that most defies the "new mercy" when it comes to marriage and morality.

Armenia - the oldest Christian state

On the flight back from Africa, Francis had expressed the wish last November to visit Armenia. The Angelus on Sunday, 22 May was "canceled" in the calendar. It is therefore believed that the pope would undertake a shorter trip in the period between May 18th and 25th. Armenia was described then as a possible destination in this regard. More "canceled" dates are the general audience of the 22nd of June and the Angelus of the 26th of June. Between the 18th and 29th of June no activities are planned. Therefore, it is speculated there will be an intercontinental trip overseas. Where will the trip go? World Religion News identified Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile and Uruguay as potential targets. According to past practice, the Pope has never visited more than three states during a pastoral visit. But first things first:

Pastoral Visits 2016: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay?

On December 27th, Infobae reported that the newly elected Argentine President Mauricio Macri will be first received on coming January 22nd in audience by the Pope. It can be assumed that Macri will invite the Catholic Church leader on this occasion, after nearly three years in office, to also visit his homeland. It is an open secret that Francis didn't support Macri, but his leftist challenger during the election campaign of 2015. The first encounter between the two is therefore awaited with excitement in Argentina.

In an interview with the broadcasting network RCN the President of the Colombian Bishops' Conference, Archbishop Luis Augusto Casto, said that Pope Francis had failed to grant an audience for 23 January. He added: "It is certain that he will come [to Colombia] and we will take this opportunity to agree on the appointment."

Yesterday La Tercera of Chile reported that of the Chilean Bishops' Conference requested an audience which will be granted shortly and scheduled for today. The President of the Bishops' Conference, Cardinal Ricardo Ezzati, and his deputy, Archbishop Alejandro Goic have hurried on to Rome. The topics to be discussed are numerous. Among other things considered, according to La Tercera, is a visit of the Pope to Chile.

The main issue is the case of the now 85 year old priest, Fernando Karadima. In 2010 cases of sexual abuse of minors had become known. In 2011 Karadima was suspended by the Church for life. He may no longer exercise his priesthood, and must lead a life of silence and penance. A victim consortium is now demanding through US Attorneys around half a billion dollars for pain and suffering. There is nothing to gain from Karadima, yet it is hoped to earn a fortune in the Catholic Church. The claim is justified by "negligence".

The case of Karadima is being used by the ruling left-wing coalition in Chile under President Michelle Bachelet to legalize the killing of unborn children. The resistance of the Catholic Church is the biggest obstacle against the legalization of abortion.

A visit in 2016 in Peru with Cardinal Cipriani Thorne, the only representative of Opus Dei with cardinal rank and one of the highest representatives of the rapidly shrinking group of Opus Dei bishops under Francis, was excluded last year by Msgr. Karcher, the Argentine master of ceremonies of the Pope.

Marian shrines 2017: 300 Aparecida - 100 Years of Fatima

There a trip to Argentina, Chile and Uruguay could take place  in 2016. While 2017 could be followed by a visit to Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil. 2017 marks the 300th anniversary of the Marian apparition in the Brazilian State of Aparecida in Sao Paulo. Pope Francis has visited the Marian shrine already on July 24, 2013 when he came for to Brazil for World Youth Day. Back then he finished an impromptu speech at the Basilica de Nossa Senhora Aparecida with the words: "And goodbye till 2017 when I will come back ..."

In April and again in September 2015, Pope Francis expressed his desire to want to come in 2017 for the 100th anniversary celebration of the apparitions of Mary to Fatima.

As long as official confirmations is outstanding, all things are only speculation at this moment.

Text: Giuseppe Nardi

Image: Viarosario (Screenshot)

Trans: Tancred vekron99@hotmail.com

Link to Katholisches....

AMDG

23:00

This Day Is Fulfilled This Scripture in Your Ears [Vultus Christi]

christ-preaching-in-the-synagogue-at-nazareth-14th-c-fresco-Visoki-Decani-Monastery-Kosovo

And Jesus returned in the power of the spirit, into Galilee, and the fame of him went out through the whole country. And he taught in their synagogues, and was magnified by all. And he came to Nazareth, where he was brought up: and he went into the synagogue, according to his custom, on the sabbath day; and he rose up to read. And the book of Isaias the prophet was delivered unto him. And as he unfolded the book, he found the place where it was written: The Spirit of the Lord is upon me. Wherefore he hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the poor, he hath sent me to heal the contrite of heart, To preach deliverance to the captives, and sight to the blind, to set at liberty them that are bruised, to preach the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of reward. And when he had folded the book, he restored it to the minister, and sat down. And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on him. And he began to say to them: This day is fulfilled this scripture in your ears. And all gave testimony to him: and they wondered at the words of grace that proceeded from his mouth, and they said: Is not this the son of Joseph? (Luke 4:14-22)

Adoration: It is Enough to Say “Amen”
The mysteries announced in the Gospel are fulfilled in the Most Holy Eucharist. Everything that we see Our Lord do, and hear Him say — and all that He is in relationship to the Eternal Father, and in relationship to us — is given us in the adorable Sacrament of the Altar. This is why Mother Mectilde, in a beautiful passage of her writings on Holy Communion, says that after receiving Holy Communion, it is enough for us to remain quiet, saying only “Amen” to all that we have received; to all that Christ is, in us, and for us, and to His Father.

In order to feel and realize his operations they need only be recollected, if possible, and assent in all simplicity to what the divine virtue and personality of Jesus Christ is accomplishing in their soul. If they cannot possess themselves in peace, reverence and attention, let them from their very heart repeat over and over again in union with the church, Amen. This word is full of mystery, it is the soul’s acknowledgement of, and consent to what God does in his Church and to what the Church does for God. (Le véritable esprit)

This “Amen” that is the perfect thanksgiving after Holy Communion is, also, the perfect expression of our adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament. Today, as you gaze in adoration upon the Eucharistic Face of Jesus, what will you see?

— You will see that the Spirit of the Lord rests upon Him. Wheresoever the Body of Christ is truly present, there also the Holy Ghost is present and, not only present, but communicated to us abundantly, like the oil poured out over the Head, that runs down over the entire Mystical Body of Christ, even to the very least of His. Members. To this, say “Amen.”

—  You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, He is preaching, at every moment, the Gospel to the poor. You have only to open the ear of your heart, recognizing that you are poor, and you will hear Him. To this, say “Amen.”

— You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, even now, He is healing the broken-hearted. Bring to Him your broken heart, place it before Him, even when you feel that it is in a thousand pieces, and quite beyond being made whole again. He will do for you what the Holy Gospel announces: He will repair your broken heart. To this, say “Amen.”

— You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, even now, He is preaching deliverance to captives. Acknowledge the things that hold you captive. Go to Him, and say, “In this thing, Lord Jesus, and in this other thing, I am not free. Do Thou for me what, of myself, I cannot do.” Set me free so that, freely and joyfully, I may love Thee and live the abundant life that is Thy will for me.” To this, say “Amen.”

— You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, He gives sight to the blind. We saw, on the feast of the Epiphany, that the adorable mystery of the Eucharist is a wellspring of Light. There is no blindness that cannot be cured in contemplating the Eucharistic Face of Jesus. To this, say “Amen.”

— You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, even now, He sets free those who are bruised from having been too long in bonds. He will not ask you why you have been so long in bondage, nor will He condemn you for having fallen into such an unfortunate state. His desire is only to set you free, and to spread the balm of His mercy over the bruises left on your soul by the heavy chains of sin. To this, say “Amen.”

— You will see that from the Sacrament of His Love, He preaches, at every moment, the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of reward. As soon as a soul enters the presence of the Most Holy Sacrament, that soul finds herself transported into the acceptable year of the Lord, and into the day of reward. By this, I mean, that adoration of the Most Holy Sacrament opens to us a vast space of grace in we discover, with Mary, that nothing is impossible to God; and with Saint Paul, that for those who love God, all things work together unto good. To this, say “Amen.”

22:55

Book Review: Life of St. Columba [Unam Sanctam Catholicam]


For many years, our website has featured occasional sketches of some of the obscure saints of the Catholic Tradition. Featured under our Sancti Obscuri page on the Unam Sanctam Catholicam website, these saints are usually from the first millennium and often from the British isles. What has really struck me in profiling over 50 obscure saints is that, while names like St. Beorn, St. Liutwin, and St. Plegmund might be unknown to us, these saints were often anything but obscure in their own day. Who has heard of St. Fursey of Lagny? Very few; but in fact he was the most famous Irish exorcist of his day with a fame comparable to Padre Pio in our own. Like St. Bernard, he founded several abbeys and preached the Gospel across France and England and was held in esteem by both the Anglo-Saxon kings and those of the Merovingians. Despite this, the name of St. Fursey of Lagbny has suffered with the passing of time, such that most have never heard of him (by the way, we have an article on St. Fursey).

Thus, often times we see that a saint's obscurity is not due to the obscurity of the saint, but just the vicissitudes of time, political development, the rise and fall of kingdoms, and so on. 

It was the study of the Sancti Obscuri of England and Ireland that led me to the St. Columba in particular. Columba (521-597) lived during Ireland's golden age, when monks from the Emerald Isle spread out over all of Europe with a missionary zeal that is unrivaled in the Church's history. The great St. Columba of Iona was one of Ireland's most famous missionaries of the golden age. Exiled from Ireland as a young monk for his part in the bloody Battle of Cúl Dreimhne, St. Columba removed himself and a few loyal monks to the island of Iona in Scotland's Inner Hebrides. From his Abbey at Iona he spent decades spreading the faith among the pagan Gaels and Picts of Scotland, a labor that earned him the title "Apostle of Scotland." The introduction of Christianity in Scotland and is due to Columba's work. His hagiography, the Vita Columbae ("The Life of St. Columba"), was compiled in the 7th century by his successor, St. Adomnán of Iona. Full of miracles, prophecy, and visions of the holy angels, St. Adomnán's work reveals a saint mighty in the power of God and moved by a zeal for the salvation of souls. 

The biography of St. Adomnán has been availble online in various corners of the internet, but it is not well known. Even the Community of Iona, the organization that has custody of Columba's famous monastery, does not offer any edition of  St. Adomnán's work for sale, as far as I can tell.

What is special about the new Cruachan Hill Press edition of the Life of St. Columba that you can't get elsewhere?

The new edition contains the complete biography of Adomnán, updated with historical footnotes to help better understand the people and places of St. Columba's day. It also features an original 30 page introductory essay on the life and times of the Irish golden age, the spirituality of St. Columba, and the genius of Irish Catholicism. Here is an excerpt of a page out of the introductory essay:
St. Columba was born in 521 in Gartan, now in County Donegal in Northern Ireland. He parents, Fedlimid and Eithne, were members of the local ruling dynasty, the Uí Néill clan. The Uí Néill were descended from the Niall of the Nine Hostages, High King of Tara who died sometime around 405. Following the death of Niall, the Uí Néill family dominated Leister and Ulster, ruling as petty kings over a small but vibrant northern Irish kingdom.
St. Columba was the great-great-grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages. He was baptized “Colum”, which means “dove”, and is sometimes known as Columcille, meaning “Colum of the Churches.” Columba lived during the golden age of Irish Catholicism, when the young Christian faith was aggressively shaping the minds and culture of the Irish people. Ireland of Columba’s day was rife with saints; to this day one cannot go from one village to the next without stumbling across some well, stone, chapel, or shrine associated with some saint from this era.

From St. Columba’s earliest years he had the fortune to be surrounded by saints. We do not know when or how he discerned his vocation, but it must have been early. It was not uncommon for the children of the nobility to be given to tutors for their education; Columba was tutored as a boy by the priest St. Crunathan (also called Cruithnechán) who seemed to be an uncle of some sort and taught the young saint to read by reciting the Psalms; according to Adomnán, Crunathan once saw a ball of light hovering over the boy’s head as he slept, which portended great things for Columba’s future.
Columba is also said to have spent some time with a bard called Gemman in the region of Leinster. This would not have been uncommon in early medieval Ireland, as the bards were the keepers of a family’s oral histories and St. Columba would have learned the history of his people – as well as how to speak and sing – from such men. Indeed, Columba must have been well trained in this art, for Adomnán mentions he had a particularly lovely voice.In the company of Gemman he once witnessed the murder of a young girl. This moved him deeply, and in righteous indignation Columba declared that the girl’s soul was among the blessed while the murderer would go to hell. The murderer in fact died unrepentant almost immediately, another strange portent which established Columba as a prophet.
As a young man Columba attended the famous monastic school at Movilla, then under the guidance of the celebrated St. Finnian, also known as St. Findbarr. Here young Columba drank deeply from the wellspring of the Irish monastic heritage, which was then in its hey-day. Irish monasticism of Columba’s day was pre-Benedictine. St. Columba himself was a contemporary of St. Benedict, who died when Columba was just beginning his monastic career. Benedictine monasticism would not come to the British Isles until 597 (the year of Columba’s death) with the arrival of St. Augustine on Thanet and the beginning of the English missions.

What sort of monasticism did Columba imbibe at the monastic school of St. Finnian? We do not know too much about the particulars of early 6th century Irish monasticism; it is mainly known of through archaeological remains and hagiographies, such as the Vita Columbae. The early 7th century Rule of St. Columbanus probably resembles the rule of life Columba would have known. St. Columbanus’ rule is brief, only ten chapters. It emphasizes private confession of faults followed by corporal discipline, strict manual labor, and admonitions to poverty, chastity, and obedience. The most interesting aspect of the Rule of St. Columbanus is its provision for perpetual prayer, laus perennis. Whereas the Rule of St. Benedict punctuates the day by eight canonical hours in which all of the monks gather together, the laus perennis of St. Columbanus has the monks divided into different ‘shifts’ who relieve each other in the choir throughout the day. The purpose is that the praises of God be sung in the chapel without ceasing.
St. Columbanus died in 615 (eighteen years after St. Columba) and was reflective of the usage at Bangor Abbey in northern Ireland. How much it has in common with what St. Columba would have learned as a boy in Movilla is uncertain, although it is probable that at the Rule of St. Columbanus at least preserves the monastic spirit of the preceding century, even the particulars are different from what St. Finnian taught St. Columba.
There is also an excellent appendix that compiles all the hymns and prayers attributed to St. Columba, along with another essay on the hymnary of Columba and the Iona monks. These great additions make the new Life of St. Columba by Cruachan Hill Press the best English language resource available on this great saint. Full of saints and miracles, this classic Irish hagiography of one of Erin's greatest saints is a must have for any student of Irish Catholicism's golden age.

The book is softcover, 165 pages, $13.99 USD + shipping. You can purchase by clicking the PayPal button below:





Or click here to go to the product page on Cruachan Hill Press for more information and international shipping.

Click here for a current catalog of Cruachan Hill Press' books


22:24

Philosophers and their religious practices part 18: Being a Shia Muslim Philosopher – Double Consciousness, Resistance, & Spirituality [The Prosblogion]

This is the eighteenth installment of a series of interviews I am conducting with academic philosophers about their religious practices. In this series of interviews, I ask philosophers about their religious practices and the influence on their philosophical work. Follow the links for parts 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 and 17. The contributors  The contributors are in various stages of their career, [...]

21:00

Komm, und lebe in mir, o mein Jesus [et nunc]

O Jesu vivens in Maria,
veni et vive in famulis tuis,
in spiritu sanctitatis tuæ,
in plenitudine virtutis tuæ,
in perfectione viarum tuarum,
in veritate virtutum tuarum,
in communione mysteriorum tuorum,
dominare omni adversæ potestati,
in spiritu tuo ad gloriam Patris. Amen.

(Jean Jacques Olier, 1608-1657)

+

Jesus, der Du in Maria lebst,
komm und lebe in Deinen Dienern
[- komm und lebe in mir -]
im Geiste Deiner Heiligkeit,
in der Fülle Deiner Kraft,
in der Echtheit Deiner Tugenden,
in der Vollkommenheit Deiner Wege,
in der Vereinigung mit Deinen Geheimnissen.
Herrsche über jede feindliche Gewalt
durch Deinen Heiligen Geist
zur Verherrlichung des Vaters. Amen.
Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE

20:44

Aquinas on the Beatitudes (II): Virtues and Gifts [Siris]

As with other scholastic theologians, Aquinas's thinking about the beatitudes is heavily linked with his thinking about the gifts of the Holy Spirit, an idea that they derive from Augustine, and with other major elements of Christian life: virtues, moral precepts, fruits of the Holy Spirit, petitions of the Our Father, and so forth. Aquinas's own account in the Summa Theologiae is primarily structured by the primary infused virtues -- love, hope, faith, prudence, justice, fortitude, temperance. This makes uncovering his account of how the beatitudes fit into the scheme fairly complicated, since there is no one place one can look. There are also a number of features in Aquinas's account that make the correspondences less than straightforward. The very basic scheme, which, as we will see, requires some nuance, could be summarized like this:

Virtue GiftBeatitude
Faith UnderstandingPurity of Heart
KnowledgeMourning
HopeFear of the LordPoverty of Spirit
CharityWisdomPeacemaking
PrudenceCounselMercy
JusticePietyMeekness
FortitudeFortitudeHungering and Thirsting
Temperance
Persecution

Of the three obvious peculiarities of the scheme, we've already seen the reason for one of them: the beatitude of persecution is the summary beatitude, indicating completeness in all of the others, so it stands outside the main list of seven. The assignment of both understanding and knowledge, and thus of their appropriate beatitudes to faith has to do with the content of each gift. Aquinas makes no explicit assignment of any gift (and thus of any beatitude) to temperance; but he mentions in passing that the fruits of the Holy Spirit associated with the gift of fear are those that have to do with temperance, which suggests -- although it does not establish -- a connection between temperance to fear of the Lord and thus to poverty of spirit. (Which we find elsewhere; Bonaventure, for instance, takes temperance to correspond to fear and poverty of spirit.)

But the real reason for the peculiarities is that Aquinas does not think there is a single exact correspondence among these lists: you can relate them in different ways depending on what you are trying to do. For instance, in a sense we can associate every virtue with every gift: the theological virtues of faith, hope, and love are the principles of all the gifts, and the gifts contribute to the completion of all the virtues. When we associate the gifts and virtues we are not doing so exclusively but according to something they have in common. These commonalities are real (which is why several of the gifts share names with virtues), but there may be different kinds, and they may not always be equally important. The gifts and beatitudes have a more rigorous linkage, due to the authority and arguments of Augustine, but we also see here that Aquinas thinks there is more than one legitimate way to arrange their correspondences.

This comes up in several cases. One case in which it comes up explicitly is in the discussion of the gift of piety and its relation to the beatitude of meekness (2-2.121.2). There he notes that there are two major kinds of fit you could see between the gifts and the beatitudes. The first is that of order, and Augustine gives that kind of fit -- the ordering of one list corresponds in some way to the ordering of the other. In this conguity, the gift of piety corresponds to the beatitude of meekness. The second is that of the special nature of each, based on the kinds of objects they have in view and the kinds of acts involved with them. In this way of fitting them together, there is still some congruity between the gift of piety and the beatitude of meekness, but there is a much stronger fit between the gift of piety and the beatitudes of hungering and thirsting and of mercy. It gets even more complicated when Aquinas answers an objection by noting that by the second kind of congruity, piety and knowledge will share a beatitude (the beatitude associated with knowledge is mourning).

Thus, Aquinas explicitly accepts Augustine's linear ordering as a legitimate way of viewing the relations between gifts and beatitudes. But he thinks there is also another way in which the gifts and beatitudes are related, by content; and this is not linear, but a matter of greater or lesser similarity

The significance of this is quite considerable. When people talk about Augustine's correspondences, they often say that they fit very well sometimes but sometimes seem a bit strained. But Aquinas can avoid this problem entirely. As he sees it, what Augustine is doing is recognizing that the order of gifts corresponds to the order of beatitudes in important practical ways. This order does not depend on the precise nature of either the gifts or the beatitudes, because it is based on their relations to other gifts and beatitudes. As it happens, in a number of cases the correspondences you get by focusing on order are the same ones you get if you ask which beatitudes have the most in common with which gifts. But they do not need to be. (It is worth noting, though, that even the point at which Aquinas himself recognizes the most divergence, the gift of piety, he still holds that there is some commonality of content between the gift and the beatitude that corresponds to it according to order.)

I suspect a major reason for this, and also a reason for why the Augustinian order, while recognized, does not play a major role in Aquinas's account, is that his interest is less directly practical than Augustine's. Aquinas's discussion is not in any sense a how-to or a map for spiritual progress, and the beatitudes are a secondary matter, however important they may be as secondary matters. The structure of the Secunda Secundae is that of a manual for confessors, although it is more concerned with underlying principles than practical advice in the confessional; this is why it focuses almost entirely on virtues and vices, and fits everything else, including the beatitudes, around them: they need to be there because they concern the ends and effects, but they are not the point of focus. In his approach to the beatitudes, however, Augustine is explicitly interested in how to live according to the complete standard of Christian life. These are very different emphases.

There are other aspects of Aquinas's account of the beatitudes beyond all of this. He shows in general more interest in the relation between the virtues and the gifts, and the beatitudes to some extent come along with the latter. He also accepts various bits of lore about the beatitudes that I haven't looked at. For instance, in various places, he recognizes correspondences, also derived from Augustine, between the beatitudes and the petitions of the Our Father (2-2.83.9 ad 3). But a weakness in the Thomistic corpus is that we have no thorough discussion of the beatitudes: Aquinas discussion of them is either quick and general or scattered throughout his discussion of other things. One has to re-form Aquinas's account in order to see how it all fits together.

18:42

There is Absolutely No Salvation Outside the Catholic Church [The Eponymous Flower]

Edit: this is a dogma that needs to be stated more than anything else today!

This is a brilliant restatement and an important aspect of this debate about evangelization. Most of your average Catholics don't believe in real presence much less the Great Commission:


Is Baptism Necessary for Salvation?

  Yes, Baptism is required for salvation, no ifs, ands, or buts. I’m not going to get in to the entire teaching on Baptism except to remind the faithful, especially priests and bishops, that Jesus has revealed through HIS Church that Baptism is absolutely necessary to be saved. Never mind the legalistic so-called mercy loopholes that are trying to be exploited by these mercy-lawyers of the Church. We need to know the Truth and share it with the fullness of clarity and charity. Why would anyone in their right mind turn down Baptism if they were promised eternal salvation? How can this possibly offend someone? Maybe the GMOs are truly starting to emasculate some men, or maybe we have way to many priests and bishops that don’t have any faith left at all. It’s up to us folks!

 I’m just going to give the official, Dogmatic teaching straight from the Catechism of the Council of Trent. Remember, if it’s a teaching directly from the Council of Trent, which this is, then it is binding on ALL the faithful. Here it is straight outta Trent:

Definition Of Baptism
With regard to the definition of Baptism although many can be given from sacred writers, nevertheless that which may be gathered from the words of our Lord recorded in John, and of the Apostle to the Ephesians, appears the most appropriate and suitable. Unless, says our Lord, a man be born again of water and the Holy Ghost, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God; and, speaking of the Church, the Apostle says, cleansing it by the laver of water in the word of life. Thus it follows that Baptism may be rightly and accurately defined: The Sacrament of regeneration by water in the word. By nature we are born from Adam children of wrath, but by Baptism we are regenerated in Christ, children of mercy. For He gave power to men to be made the sons of God, to them that believe in his name, who are born, not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. (my emphasis added)

17:43

Murmurs and Glimpses of Eternity [Siris]

Outlook
by Archibald Lampman


Not to be conquered by these headlong days,
But to stand free: to keep the mind at brood
On life's deep meaning, nature's altitude
Of loveliness, and time's mysterious ways;
At every thought and deed to clear the haze
Out of our eyes, considering only this,
What man, what life, what love, what beauty is,
This is to live, and win the final praise.

Though strife, ill fortune and harsh human need
Beat down the soul, at moments blind and dumb
With agony; yet, patience—there shall come
Many great voices from life's outer sea,
Hours of strange triumph, and, when few men heed,
Murmurs and glimpses of eternity.

17:24

New from Remnant TV.... [The Remnant Newspaper - The Remnant Newspaper - Remnant Articles]

Approved Hate: Abolishing God, Family and GenderDown in the catacombs, Michael Matt discusses the latest front in the war against God: the gender war. Fifty years ago traditional Catholics were...

See more at http://remnantnewspaper.com

16:08

Rome's blasphemy confirmed by Pope Leo XIII [Vox Cantoris]

Barona provides his take on the Bishop of Rome's participation in the blasphemous video which you've read about in the two posts below and elsewhere, no doubt. He has there, a quote from Pope Leo XIII which defines the actions of these malefactors quite succinctly.


Pope Francis' video condemned by the Catechism of the Catholic Church ~ Rome has joined with Freemasonry to promote religious indifferentism

So numerous are Church teachings against religious indifferentism that one hardly knows where to begin. 

Where is the only name under Heaven in this "dialogue"? 

 


16:03

The world will LOVE this feel-good message from Pope Francis; but what does it mean? [Musings of a Pertinacious Papist]

What will it mean to the world? What does HE mean? Is anyone sure there is a definitive answer?


I keep thinking: the Scimitar meets the Care Bears" ...


Related: Matthew Arildsen, "Why Wheaton’s move to fire controversial professor makes sense" (Washington Post, January 8, 2016).

15:49

Why this bit of political correctness will not end well for Wheaton College [Musings of a Pertinacious Papist]

I posted THIS on December 15th, 2015, about the "same God" comment by an evangelical Wheaton College professor who wore a hijab in identification with Muslims.

D.G. Hart now writes: "Why This Won’t End Well For Wheaton" (Old Life, January 8, 2016).

The nub of the issue, says Hart, is that Hawkins (the professor who did this at Wheaton) "doesn't seem to recognize that the unity of creation [which gives all of us creatures a certain solidarity] can't make up for the antithesis that Christ introduces." (He quotes Mt 10:34-38.)

15:41

Note to Readers [The Paraphasic]

I have a couple of posts in the works, including a continuation of the series on Robert Caro's Johnson biography and a long-ish article defending certain features of republican government from a traditionalist/Thomist perspective (well, from my own perspective anyway, which is at least vaguely traditionalist/Thomist).

I also have one further volume of Pastor's History ready for publication (except for the dust jacket) and eleven more which are only slightly behind that (they need page number corrections and re-scaling).

The layout of The Paraphasic has been up in the air for the past few days.  I like to change things periodically, in part because novelty is the spice of life, but also because I periodically want the blog to function slightly differently.  After some experimentation with Blogger's "dynamic views" templates, I've changed the site back to (more or less) the previous layout.  "Dynamic views" has some advantages, but it's also set up in such a way that makes tinkering harder for the user, and it wasn't really worth it.  Google could do a lot more for Blogger users if they cared to develop this service further.

I've begun adding keyword tags to my old posts.  Given that there are almost 600 published posts on this blog, this is a large task, and it will take some time.  As I progress, the keyword cloud on the right will become more usable as a means of exploring what I've written here over the past five years.  (The fifth anniversary of the blog will be in June.)

Finally, I'd like to extend a word of thanks to the people who read The Paraphasic regularly.  Back in the day, a few years ago, I knew pretty much everyone who read this blog.  At this point I no longer know the vast majority of you, but I see you trickling (and occasionally more than trickling) in via the blog stats.  There's an impressive degree of geographical diversity among the readership here, and it's odd to think that my morose ramblings might be interesting to people in Dehli or Sydney or Vladivostok.  (Hello to Dehli and Sydney and Vladivostok, by the way.)

Thank you for taking an interest, and I hope that I continue to supply you with whatever you're after.

15:00

Maria Sieler: The Love of Christ for His Priests [Vultus Christi]

Maria SielerA Hidden Soul
Sixty–three years ago, in the heart of Rome, died one of those hidden souls whose entire life is but a silent offering. The holiness of such souls is brought to light when, providentially, one discovers that their action, although discreet, is wonderfully fruitful in the mystery of Mother Church.

Maria Sieler, who died in Rome in 1952, was one such soul. Austrian by origin, she settled in the Eternal City in 1939 to pursue and consummate a life yielded entirely to Christ, and to plant there the seed of the work that Heaven had asked of her.

Childhood in Austria
Born on February 3, 1899 in Winterdorf in central Styria, she was baptized the following day. Her parents were modest but very devout farmers. They had five children; Maria was the second of these. At six years of age she lost her father. His death reduced the family to poverty. At a very young age, Maria was obliged to begin work on the family farm and to care for her three younger sisters. Her childhood was divided among the school, the farm where she worked as a shepherdess, and her visits to the church. Very early on, she received two mystical graces, which were to orient her entire existence.

Conversation With Jesus
One day at school, while the teaching Sister was explaining prayer and recollection to the children, Maria heard a voice coming from the crucifix of the classroom, saying: “Look at me and pray with fervour. By means of this prayer, you will arrive at conversing with Me, as do men among themselves.”

Shortly before her First Holy Communion, while she was speaking with a companion, a voice that was wholly interior said to her sorrowfully: “I am so little known in the Most Holy Sacrament! Men do not believe, and they do not want to receive Me. And yet, I desire so much love, and I expect from you much love, for the others!” And, at the same time, a kind of ecstasy took hold of the little girl. From this moment forward, Jesus was the confidant of her heart. He engraved within her the love of silence and of solitude, and an attraction to the religious life. “My first love, my only love, was Jesus . . . my heart had to belong to Him, to Him alone . . . I have sought only Thee, O Jesus,” she wrote at the end of 1942. She received Holy Communion very regularly: daily, beginning at the age of fourteen, for so had the Parish Priest determined for her out of prudence. Beginning at this period, she set about praying every night for long hours, often with her arms extended in the form of the cross. After 1913 the end of her studies left her with more time.

Crisis
In 1915-16, however, she went through a little crisis of lukewarmness, brought on mostly by a certain feeling that Jesus had distanced Himself from her. She no longer felt His presence as she once had, and this caused her suffering. Immediately, nonetheless, she asked herself the most important question: “Is it God alone or, rather, His gifts and consolations that I am seeking in prayer” She was able to pass through this night of the senses, this darkness of the soul and dryness of the heart, with profit. This “night” became for her a time of spiritual ascent.

Sickness
In July 1917, during a retreat at the Convent of the Sacred Heart at Graz, she made the offering of herself to Jesus, and resolved to consecrate herself in the religious life. By a mysterious design of Providence and in view of her future mission, Maria had, for a time, to renounce this project. Johann, her only brother and the eldest, fell on the front at Assiago in 1918. Then, in December 1918, Maria suffered a grave illness of the lungs and had to receive the Anointing of the Sick. The illness lasted three years, during which time her calling became clearer: Jesus was asking her for the complete oblation of herself, a victimal oblation. Graces of union and heavenly favours abounded, but the young girl, stricken with fear, hesitated to surrender herself. Jesus asked her, “When will you surrender yourself to me totally, as an oblation. How long will you hesitate? I desire to make you my spouse of the Cross and to make you all offering for Myself. My life will become your life, full of suffering as yet veiled to your eyes.”

Victim Soul for Priests
Maria’s vocation became clearer. She was to be a soul of offering in whom the Lord might renew His Passion. Already, the divine exigencies had prevailed over her own desires and over her health. The victim was ready. The High Priest was calling her. On December 8, 1923, Maria committed herself definitively, by the double vow for which the Lord had been asking: perpetual chastity and victimal oblation. Right from this hour she received a profusion of graces and lights on her vocation: not visions, nor apparitions, nor sensible revelations, but astonishing intellectual lights of a remarkable and amazing depth and doctrinal certainty. Her mission was defined by Jesus: a radical immolation for the profound intentions of the Church and for the renewal of the priesthood: “I want to pour out my love again upon men, as I did in apostolic times, and you must be for Me the instrument of the outpouring of my love.”

Not Called to the Cloister
This calling was soon to manifest itself in a great trial. Already torn between the rhythm of her daily life and the aspirations of her soul, she regretted painfully her inability to consecrate her life to God in a cloister because of her precarious health. A novena to Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus, who had just been canonized, brought some improvement to her health, and she enter the Good Shepherd (Convent) of Graz in April 1926. A few weeks later, her deficient health obliged her to leave this Congregation to go to the Sisters of the Cross. She finally left the latter on June 29, 1926, gravely ill and having received from Jesus the indication that her place would never be in a monastery.

Universal Renewal of the Priesthood
The trial was a terrible one, but the young woman came out of it purified and ultimately abandoned to the will of God. In the course of the autumn of 1926, Jesus said to her again: “I am preparing a universal renewal of the priesthood, and you must immolate yourself for that.”

Jesus Forsaken in the Blessed Sacrament
Maria Sieler was called to share all the sufferings of Christ, notably after her Holy Communions. “After Communion, Jesus made me feel the sorrows of His Heart. An unspeakable pain, poured out from His Heart, flowed into mine, and I thought I would die from it.” She felt the sufferings of Jesus because of the lukewarmness, the indifference, and the disregard of Christians, especially toward the Most Holy Sacrament. “He often showed me how much He is forsaken and so little honoured in the Blessed Sacrament, and the scant attention paid Him, the Lord, whom they treat as nothing. He showed me the pains of His Heart, and allowed me to feel them and to share them.”

Wounded for Priests
She also received the sublime and terrible grace of stigmatization, but obtained from Jesus that the wounds should remain invisible. “I felt the pains of the Wounds of the Saviour and of His pierced Heart, of His Head crowned with thorns. I faltered under it.”
At the heart of these sufferings, Maria, receiving lights that always more precise, discovered her particular vocation in the Church militant: to be a victim of holocaust for the priesthood.
“I want to renew the Church through priests and, in this way, give her new graces! I want to give new priests and new shepherds to my Church. . . .”

Painful Revelations Concerning Priests
She had painful revelations, notably concerning the unworthiness of priests and their tepidity with regard to the love of Jesus:

How I love my priests! How I thirst for their love! I would see my life relived in them. They must be the joy of my Heart, but how I am rejected, offended, and disdained by them! They become a shame for my Heart and a scandal for my Church! Souls who should be saved by them are going to their perdition because of them! Souls ought to be able to find again the way to my Heart, through priests . . . but so many priests live self-seeking lives, (caught up) in their passions, and souls cannot come to Me through them, because the way traced by these priests is sullied. It is neither pure nor straight. I so love my priests. . . .

Certainly, these hard words contain nothing new, and they are not addressed radically to all priests: Christ has communicated to other prayerful souls the same laments spoken to Maria Sieler, and He has always had the gentleness to clarify that they are directed only to certain priests. But the faults of consecrated souls are especially grave; they affect the salvation of the souls entrusted to the very ministry of priests.

Spiritual Discernment
Maria Sieler received the most important and abundant communications from Jesus between 1926 and 1932. Her later years, while just as rich, were more a kind of deepening of these in silence and in prayer, in sacrifice and in immolation. All her revelations, carefully noted, were submitted at the time to the control of Monsignor E. List and of the Dominican theologian, Father Garrigou-Lagrange, who was the young woman’s director. Among her correspondents and friends, she counted Monsignor Graber, the bishop of Regensburg, and Monsignor Merk. The former was the founder of the Work that the Lord wanted to raise up for the radiance and renewal of the priesthood.

The Great Loss of Faith
In addition to these abundant lights on the sanctification of priests, Maria Sieler heard, over the years, moving reproaches of the Heart of the Jesus, the announcement of a crisis in the Church and the clergy, and that of grave and trenchant chastisements for all unworthy souls of priests.

In her notebooks, Maria Sieler wrote:

In countless hours of grace and of prayer, the Lord made me see, many years ago already, a great loss of the faith, which would go on increasing. All of hell will be unleashed and will do everything possible to cause great damages to the Church. Jesus made me know two ways: I must be a soul of offering for the renewal of priests, of the priesthood, and for the renovation of the Church.

A Work for Priests
She received from the Lord, at Rome, a very precise mission: the regular foundation of a priestly work:

This work must have for its own name: The Work of the Great High Priest, because it is I Myself who will be its only Founder. In this Work, I will form priests in great number, who will live fully of my spirit, because this is what I desire for the times that are to come very soon!

Jesus promised new graces of choice to the priests who would belong to this Work: they would be “an example for each of their brothers in the priesthood, serving them out of love in their acts and their words, without division or compromise.” This work would be “international, regrouping priests from the monastic state as well as from the statute of priests serving in dioceses, regular and secular.”

Death
This whole foundation matured in prayer and in sacrifice for ten years, in an existence entirely surrendered to God, but Maria Sieler never saw the realization of it. She died prematurely, all alone in her room, in the night of July 26th to the 27th, 1952. She had just returned from a final pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Francis in Assisi. She was discovered on the 29th; she appeared asleep, kneeling on the floor, against her bed, with her head resting on her arm. Her face was radiant. The Lord had come, like a thief, noiselessly, during one of those vigils in prayer that she offered Him, with her arms in the form of a cross.

Bishop Graber Establishes the Work
Many years later, on April 7, 1971, one of the most faithful friends of Maria Sieler officially founded the Work of the Great High Priest, together with thirteen other priests. It was Monsignor Rudolf Graber, the bishop of Regensburg (Ratisbonne).

(I translated this short biographical notice of Maria Sieler from the French in 2008.)

14:23

CFA: 2nd Annual Theistic Ethics Workshop [The Prosblogion]

Call for Abstracts Second Annual Theistic Ethics Workshop Georgetown University October 6-8, 2016 Confirmed Speakers: Marilyn McCord Adams (Rutgers University) Robert M. Adams (Rutgers University) Russ Shafer-Landau (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill) Chris Tucker (William and Mary) Candace Vogler (University of Chicago) Goal: Contemporary philosophy of religion has been richly informed by important [...]

14:00

This life of yours will pass quickly [Vultus Christi]

SSC-magi-vlIt is not by privileges, special graces, or mystical experiences
that souls are perfected in love;
it is by a total adhesion to my Will,
and by a real death to all that is not my Will.

This life of yours will pass quickly.
In the end, you will take comfort in one thing only:
in the “Yes” that you will have said to my Love for you,
and in your adhesion to my Will as it will have unfolded
minute by minute, hour by hour, and day by day in your life.

Tell me, then, that what I will, you will.
Tell me that all that is outside of my will for you is so much rubbish.
Ask me to cleanse your life of the accumulated rubbish of so many years.
Ask me to make you clean of heart and poor in spirit.
Seek nothing apart from what my Heart desires you to have.
Ask only for what my Heart desires to give you.
Therein lies your peace.
Therein lies your joy.
Therein lies salvation and glory.

Your plans, your desires, and your anxieties
are but puffs of smoke blown away by the wind.
Only what I will endures.
Only what I will gives you happiness.
Seek then what I will, and trust me to give you what you seek.

Souls who chase after rainbows
pass by the treasures that I have laid beneath their feet,
leaving them behind to pursue a future that is not,
and that will not come to be.
This is an exhausting exercise for you
and for so many souls like you,
who, enchanted by an ideal,
fail to see my work, and the splendour of my Will for them,
revealed in the present.

Live, then, in the present moment.
Choose to be faithful to me
in the little things that I give you
and ask of you from minute to minute,
from hour to hour, and from day to day.
It is foolish to pin your hopes and to spend your energy
on an imaginary good,
when the real good that I offer you is here and now.

It is not forbidden you to dream dreams
or to imagine a future that you think will make you happy
— I give you your imagination and I am not offended when you use it.
The imagined good becomes an evil, however,
when it saps you of your energy;
drains you of the vitality
that I would have you offer me in sacrifice
by being faithful to the reality that is here and now;
and when you use your imagination
to flee from obedience and submission to me
in the circumstances
and in the places where I have placed you at this time.

Plan for the future by living in the present.
Open your heart to my voice each day,
and cling to the smallest manifestations of my Will.
Renounce all that springs from your own desires and imaginings,
and say “Yes” to all that springs from my most loving and merciful Heart.
Therein lies your peace, your joy, and your salvation.

(From In Sinu Iesu, The Journal of A Priest)

13:37

Commentaries for the Second Week in Ordinary Time, Year II [The Divine Lamp]

SECOND SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME
Note: we are in Year C

Year A: Commentaries for the Second Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Year B: Commentaries for the Second Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Year C: Commentaries for the Second Sunday in Ordinary Time.

MONDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Haydock Commentary on 1 Samuel 15:16-23.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 15:16-23.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 50.

Patristic/Medieval Commentary on Psalm 50.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 50.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 50.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 2:18-22.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 2:18-22.

TUESDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Haydock Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:1-13.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 16:1-13.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 89.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 89.

My Notes on Today’s Responsorial Psalm (89:20, 21-22, 27-28). Verses used today.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 2:23-28.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 2:23-28.

WEDNESDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Haydock Commentary on 1 Samuel 17:32-33, 37, 40-51.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 17:32-33, 37, 40-51.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 144.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 144.

Pseudo-St Albert the Great on Psalm 144.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 144.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 3:1-6.

Catholic Scripture Manual on Mark 3:1-6.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 3:1-6.

THURSDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Haydock Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:6-9, 19:1-7.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 18:6-9, 19:1-7.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 56.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 56.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 3:7-12.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 3:7-12.

FRIDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Haydock Commentary on 1 Samuel 24:3-21.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Samuel 24:3-21.

Pending: Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 57.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 57.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 57.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 3:13-19.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 3:13-19.

SATURDAY OF THE SECOND WEEK IN ORDINARY TIME

Today’s Mass Readings.

Today’s Divine Office.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 2 Samuel 1:1-4, 11-12, 19, 23-27.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 80.

St Augustine’s Notes on Psalm 80.

Pope John Paul II’s Commentary on Psalm 80.

My Notes on Psalm 80.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Mark 3:20-21.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Mark 3:20-21.

THIRD SUNDAY IN ORDINARY TIME
Note: we are in Year C

Year A: commentaries for the Third Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Year B: Commentaries for the Third Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Year C: Commentaries for the Third Sunday in Ordinary Time.

Next Week’s Posts.


Filed under: Bible, Catholic, Catholic lectionary, Daily Catholic Lectionary, Notes on the Lectionary, Scripture Tagged: Bible, Catholic, Daily Catholic Lectionary, lectionary, Scripture

13:36

Commentaries for the Third Sunday in Ordinary Time, Year C [The Divine Lamp]

READINGS AND OFFICE:

Today’s Mass Readings.

Mass Readings in the NJB Translation. Scroll down. Used in most English speaking countries. For some reason the site has the Gospel reading before the second reading.

Today’s Divine Office.

Anglican Use Daily Office. ”Briefly, it is a provision for an “Anglican style” liturgy similar to the Book of Common Prayer as an ecclesiastically approved variant on the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church.” More info.

COMMENTARIES ON THE FIRST READING: Nehemiah  8:2-4a, 5-6, 8-10.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Nehemiah 8:2-4a, 5-6, 8-10.

COMMENTARIES ON THE RESPONSORIAL: Psalm 19:8, 9. 10, 15.

Father Boylan’s Introduction to Psalm 19.

St Thomas Aquinas’ Lecture on Psalm 19.

St Augustine on Psalm 19.

Pope John Paul II on Psalm 19.

COMMENTARIES ON THE SECOND READING: 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

Father Callan’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

Father Cornelius a Lapide’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

Father de Piconio’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

Navarre Bible Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30.

COMMENTARIES ON THE GOSPEL READING: Luke 1:1-4, 4:14-22.

Aquinas’ Catena Aurea on Luke 1:1-4, 4:14-21. On 4:14-22.

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 1:1-4, 4:14-22.

Navarre Bible Commentary on Luke 1:1-4, 4:14-22.


Filed under: Bible, Catholic, Catholic Sunday Lectionary, Notes on the Lectionary, Scripture Tagged: Bible, Catholic, Catholic Sunday Lectionary, Scripture

13:34

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on 1 Corinthians 12:12-30 [The Divine Lamp]

12. Under an expressive metaphor, derived from the mutual co-operation and dependence of the several members of the human body the Apostle points out the relation which the different members of the mystic body, of which Christ is head, hold towards each other, and inculcates cordial union in contributing mutually to the common advantage of the entire Church, without repining on one side, or pride on the other. “As the body,” i.e., the human body, “is one,” … “and all the members of the body,” (in the common Greek, of that one body, the chief MSS. omit “one,”) “so is also Christ;” i.e., the mystic body of which Christ is head. It is needless to remind the readers of Roman history how successfully this famous apologue of the human body was employed by Menenius Agrippa in reconciling the Roman Plebeians with the Patricians.—(Vide Livy, Book ii. c. xxii.)

13. He applies to the mystic body of Christ, the two qualities which he predicated of the natural body in the preceding verse—viz., that it is one; and, secondly, that it is composed of many and different members. Applying the first part in this verse, he proves that the mystic body of Christ is one. “Baptized into one body,” i.e., by baptism ingrafted on the mystic body of Christ. “And in one spirit we have been all made to drink.” The common Greek is, εἰς ἑν πνευμα, into one spirit. The interpretation of the Paraphrase, which refers this to the Adorable Eucharist, seems preferable to any other. In the first ages of the Church, the Eucharist was given to children under the species of wine; or it might have been the general practice to administer it under that species; because, the administering of it under the one species or the other, or under both, is a point of discipline which may vary at different times according to the will of the Church. In this interpretation, the words mean, that having been “made to drink” of the Eucharist, they are formed into one spirit, in the same way, as speaking of the participation of the Eucharist under the species of bread (10:17), he says they are made, “one body.” The words may also mean, that they were filled with and drank plentifully of the grace of the same holy Ghost, which was abundantly poured out upon them.

14. He proves that the Church must be composed of different members. This follows from the very fact of its being a body. The Apostle wishes the Corinthians to learn from the natural body the duties which they owe each other. In this verse, he shows that there must be a variety in the members of the mystic body, and that all, therefore, cannot have the same gifts.

15. In this verse, the Apostle undertakes to offer consolation to the less favoured members of the Church—“the foot”—and thereby to remove all ground for murmuring on their part. He consoles them by the assurance, that they partake of the honours of the mystic body, no less than the most highly gifted and exalted of their brethren.

16. “The ear,” probably refers to the hearers, and to persons requiring instruction. “The eye,” to the learned, and to the teachers among them.

17. He shows in this verse, that consistently with the nature of a body, which must be composed of a variety of members (verse 14), all can neither hold the same place, nor enjoy the same privileges. If, in the natural body, all were reduced to an eye, where would be the ear, or sense of hearing?—where the sense of smelling? So it is also with the mystical body of Christ, if all were teachers, where would be the disciples and hearers?

18. He shows the ordination of God to be in favour of this diversity of members, as well in the mystical as in the natural body, and to the supreme and adorable will of God all should at once humbly submit.

19. In this verse he repeats, in an interrogatory form, the assertion which he already made (verse 14)—viz., that it is of the very nature of an organized body, to be composed, not of one, but of many members.

20. Here he repeats his assertion (verse 12), to the proof of which the preceding verses are devoted.

21. After addressing himself in the foregoing passage to the less honourable members, the Apostle now points out to the more highly favoured, their duties in regard to the less honoured members—viz., that they should treat them with greater attention and respect in proportion to their wants; for they stand in mutual need of each other. By “the eye” and “head” are meant these who hold an exalted position, analogous to that which the eye and head occupy in the natural body. From this verse the Apostle wishes it to be inferred, that those who hold a more exalted position in the Church cannot dispense with the aid and assistance of their more humble brethren.

22. Not only are the inferior members necessary for the more honourable, but they are indispensable for the existence of the entire body, and the most feeble are the most necessary (v.g.), the brains and intestines.

23. “The less honourable members,” probably refer to the feet and the lower part of the trunk of the body, especially the ducts, by which nature empties herself and discharges what is redundant. “More abundant honour,” by more studiously covering them with raiment. “Our uncomely parts,” probably refer to the pudenda. In the moral body they refer to sinners, who should be particularly attended to; and hence, their failings cloaked and concealed, as much as possible.

24. “But our comely parts,” such as the face, eyes, hands, “have no need” of particular care in having them clothed. This he adds, to conciliate the more highly gifted members of the Church, who might take offence at the foregoing. “But God has tempered the body together.” This he has done by making compensation to the less honoured members for their native unworthiness by adding greater external care and culture, “giving more abundant honour to that which wanted it.”

25. The schism of which St. Paul here speaks, is, of course, to be dreaded only in the moral or mystical body. To it, the Apostle wishes to apply all that he has been saying regarding the relations, which the members of the natural body bear to each other.

26. In the mystical body, the order of charity requires that all the others sympathize with the suffering, and exult with the delighted member.

27. In this verse, the Apostle tells the Corinthians and all Christians, that they should apply to themselves, as the mystical body of Christ, what he had been saying of the natural or human body; it was for the purpose of pointing out their relative duties towards one another, that he introduced the comparison between them and the natural body. “You are the body of Christ,” from which they should infer that all which has been said of the relations and duties of the several members of the natural body should be understood to apply to them, and fulfilled by them towards one another.

“And members of member,” i.e., fellow-members of the same body, mutually connected with, and depending on each other. The words are probably allusive to the passage in the Book of Genesis (2:23). “This is bone of my bone and flesh of my flesh,” which is mystically understood of Christ and his Church. The words, as containing this allusion, might also mean, members of Christ, because they are members of the body of which he is head, or chief member—hence, “members of member,” μελη εκ μελους. The Greek reading runs thus: μελη εκ μερους, members in part. The Greek reading, followed by the Vulgate, and still found in the manuscripts of St. Germain and Clermont, was, εκ μελους. The meaning of the words, according to the present Greek, is, that they are particular members of Christ’s mystic body, and all, therefore, cannot have the same gifts. This interpretation accords well with the Syriac reading of the words—you are members in your proper places.

28. The Apostle adopts in this verse the similitude of the natural body to the Church; and by recounting part of the gifts and offices conferred on her, he shows that God has set the different members as he thought proper, conformably to what is said (verse 18). He places these gifts and offices in their order of dignity.

“First, Apostles.”—(See Gal. 1:1). These may be regarded as the visible head of the body, as being Christ’s representatives and vicegerents. “Secondly, Prophets.” They were gifted with the “words of wisdom” (verse 8). They may be regarded as the eyes of the body. “Thirdly, Teachers,” who had the faculty of explaining the truths of faith in a plain, simple way. They had the “word of knowledge” (verse 8); the tongue of the body. It is observed by Commentators, that these teachers of the gospel are preferred by the Apostle to those who had the gifts of miracles and of tongues, so much prized by the Corinthians. “After that, miracles.” The workers of miracles—the hands of the body. In the latter part of this verse, the Apostle employs the abstract for the concrete term. “Then, the graces of healings.” Those who are divinely endowed with the gift of healing bodily diseases. “Helps.” Those who assisted their brethren in distress, not by any miraculous operation, but by the performance of the corporal and spiritual works of mercy. “Governments,” are understood by some to refer to the directors of souls. The interpretation of the Paraphrase seems preferable. “Kinds of tongues.”—(See verse 10). St. Chrysostom remarks, that almost the last place is given by the Apostle to this gift, so highly prized by the Corinthians. “Interpretation of speeches.” These words are wanting in the Greek copies. But as all Greek manuscripts give the same words in an interrogatory form, next verse—“do all interpret?” it is likely, that the Greek copy from which the Vulgate was taken, was the correct one. The Vulgate is preferred by Beza.

29, 30. The several questions are equivalent to so many negations. By them the Apostle intends to assert, that in the mystical, as well as in the natural body, a variety of functions and offices is necessary, in order to consult for the beauty and harmony of the entire body. Each one, therefore, should rest content with whatever place it may please Providence to assign him in the Church.


Filed under: Bible, Catholic, Christ, Notes on 1 Corinthians, Notes on the Lectionary, Scripture Tagged: Bible, Catholic, Notes on 1 Corinthians, Scripture

13:30

Father MacEvilly’s Commentary on Luke 1:1-4, 4:14-22 [The Divine Lamp]

1. “Many,” cannot refer to St. Matthew or St. Mark, who were not “many.” Moreover, Matthew was himself an “eye-witness,” and did not, therefore, derive his information from, “eye-witnesses.” Nor is it likely Matthew and Mark are referred to with others who with them might constitute “many,” as St. Luke would hardly class inspired with uninspired writers of the Gospel. Neither is it likely that reference is made to the writers of Apocryphal Gospels, under the names of Matthias, Thomas, Twelve Apostles, &c., as there is no evidence that these were in existence at the time. To whom, then, does St. Luke refer? Probably, to some incompetent, but well-meaning compilers of incomplete and confused histories of the actions and sayings of our Divine Lord, according as they ascertained them from the traditions, which existed at the time, whose motive in undertaking a Gospel History St. Luke neither praises nor censures.

Have taken in hand” (επεχειρησαν). These words of themselves imply neither success nor failure, though generally taken in the latter sense, and very probably they mean it here, as the failure of those referred to in giving a full narrative of the Gospel incidents, and the uncertainty which their confused histories might create in the minds of the faithful, would seem to be put forward by St. Luke as his motive for undertaking a well-arranged, authentic narrative of the doings and sayings of our Blessed Lord.

To set forth in order.” The Greek compound—αναταξασθαὶ—would seem to signify to re-arrange, and is so understood by Patrizzi, as if St. Luke referred to men who would fain give a more accurate and orderly account than that of Matthew and Mark. However, it more probably signifies here to give a well-arranged narrative of the events of Gospel History without implying reference to any already existing written records requiring to be put in order.

Of the things,” events, embracing doctrinal teachings and external actions.

Accomplished.” The Greek word, πεπληροφορημένῶν, sometimes signifies to fulfil, or accomplish (2 Tim. 4:5; Col. 2:2; Heb. 6:11), in which sense the Vulgate translator understands it, as if reference were made to the accomplishment of the ancient prophecies and types in the words and actions of our Lord recorded in the Gospel. Sometimes, the word means, fully credited, producing a most unhesitating conviction. (Rom. 4:21; 14:5, &c.) This latter would seem to be its meaning here, as appears from the following words, as it was meant, that they had the firmest persuasion, &c., owing to the testimony of “eye-witnesses,” &c.

Among us,” in our time, if “accomplished” be taken in the first sense above given; to our knowledge, if taken in the second meaning.

2. “According as they have delivered them,” &c. There is a diversity of opinion as to the connexion of these with the foregoing words. By some, they are connected with “accomplished,” or firmly believed, as if in them was assigned a reason for that firm belief, because of the tradition which transmitted them with undoubted truthfulness from sources above all suspicion, viz., the “eye-witnesses,” among whom we may reckon primarily the Blessed Virgin, the shepherds of Bethlehem, in regard to the earliest incidents, the Apostles from the time of their vocation. The latter were also “ministers of the Word,” having been divinely engaged in divulging to the world the sacred truths of which it is meant to transmit a well-digested record. Others connect them with the words, “have taken in hand,” as if it were meant to convey, that the writers in question meant, perhaps, unsuccessfully, to transmit a history of the teachings and actions of our Lord in accordance with the traditions received from “eye-witnesses,” &c. Others connect them with the words of v. 3, “in order,” as if St. Luke meant to convey that he undertook to give an orderly account in accordance with the accurate traditions of “eye-witnesses,” &c. These place a full stop after v. 1.

From the beginning.” The origin of the Christian dispensation, the commencement of the events and incidents recorded in the Holy Gospel, viz., the birth and infancy of the Precursor, the birth and infancy of our Lord, &c.

Of the Word,” although sometimes referring to the Increated Word or Eternal Son of God, here most likely refers to the Gospel incidents, embracing our Lord’s discourses and actions.

3. “It seemed good to me also,” &c., under the impulse and inspiration of the Holy Ghost, which we reverently believe to have guided the hand and pen of St. Luke, preserving him from error in his narrative. To such inspiration, however, St. Luke here lays no claim, when referring to the sources from which, humanly speaking, he derives the incidents of an authentic history, so as to satisfy all reasonable men, even on human grounds, in regard to his claims to be believed.

Good,” in the sense in which “it seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to us,” Apostles (Acts 15:28).

Having diligently attained to.” Accurately investigated and traced out with the greatest diligence and exactness.

All things from the beginning.” All the things that appertained to the Gospel history from the commencement to the end (see v. 2).

In order.” Avoiding all confusion in narrating the series and succession of events in the general complexion of the history. Hence, he puts the account of the conception and birth of the Baptist before that of Christ; the conception and birth of Christ before His baptism; His baptism before His preaching; His preaching and miracles before His death; His death before His Resurrection and Ascension. As our Lord often delivered His instructions repeatedly, and on various occasions, the order in which they were repeated is not strictly adhered to in regard to them, nor in regard to certain minute circumstances. “Order,” may refer to subjects rather than dates, to the grouping of events and incidents in cases of similarity rather than to time, regarding which he is less definite than the two other Synoptists, especially in his loose and fragmentary narrative from chap. 9:51 to 18:14, which is exclusively his own, save v. 18, chap. 16.

Most excellent Theophilus”—literally, a friend of God, a lover of God, or beloved of God—is not a common name, belonging to the representative of a class, as held by some, or, to a particular Church, as held by others; but a proper name, undoubtedly referring to a particular man. Who he was cannot be fully ascertained. Most likely he was one of St. Luke’s converts, distinguished for great moral worth; hence, styled “most excellent.” It is, however, more probable still, that this title which the Greeks were wont to bestow on governors, and men occupying high official station, was addressed to Theophilus on account of his exalted rank and high official position. In this latter sense, the same title—κρατίστος—is applied to Felix (Acts 23:26; 24:3) and to Festus (Acts 26:25). He was very likely a Gentile convert of high station, and also an inhabitant of Rome. For, while St. Luke is very particular in topological details, both in his Gospel and in the Acts of the Apostles, when treating of Asia Minor, Palestine, and Greece, he is silent on such matters when he treats of Italy. From this it is inferred that Theophilus was a Roman, in regard to whom it would be superfluous to treat of Italian topography, with which, on this assumption, he must have been thoroughly conversant. But although addressed to Theophilus, we are not to suppose that the Gospel was written for him alone, but for the entire Christian world, to the end of time, of whom Theophilus may be regarded as the representative. Even in our own day, we frequently see writings meant for the public, addressed and dedicated to individuals.

4. “That thou mayest know,” become thoroughly convinced of, “the verity,” the secure ground of your belief (ασφαλειαν, security) in.

Of those words.” In those things. “Word” is a term commonly used by the Hebrews to denote any event or thing.

Instructed”—κατηχηθηςcatechised, instructed orally, or by word of mouth. It was by means of oral, catechetical instruction Theophilus was first brought to embrace the faith. St. Luke deems it right to leave a written record, under the influence of inspiration, of the Gospel History, in order to confirm the faith of Christians during all succeeding ages.

14. “And Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit to Galilee.” He “returned” to Galilee, whence He had come, to the part of the Jordan where He was baptized by John; “in the power of the Spirit,” under the strong impulse and influence of the Holy Ghost. He now displays and externally manifests in His preaching and wondrous works, the power of the Holy Ghost, with which He was filled from His Incarnation, which He possessed without measure, and with which He was anointed in the unction of the hypostatic union. The Evangelist now wishes to have us to understand, that in all the words and actions of our Lord about to be narrated, He was always guided by, and always acted under the influence and power of, the Holy Ghost. This was the second return of our Lord into Galilee, since His fast and baptism. John (1:43), records His first return. Hence, the Evangelist passes over several events in the life of our Lord, which occurred before the return referred to here, viz., His coming to John (John 1:29), who speaks of Him in the most exalted terms; the marriage feast of Cana; the wonders performed at Capharnaum (v. 23, here); His going up to Jerusalem at the Pasch (John 2:13); the time spent by Him in Judea, baptizing (John 3:22); the intimation He received that John was imprisoned, which occasioned His going to Galilee, as recorded here (see Matthew 4:12, Commentary on).

And the fame of Him,” on account of the wonderful things He did and said, “went out through the whole country,” viz., Galilee and the adjacent districts, Samaria, Phœnicia, Syria, &c.

15. “And,” is interpreted by some to mean, “for,” “He taught in their synagogues.” This was the chief cause of His being so celebrated among them. “And was magnified (extolled) by all,” on account of what He taught, and His authoritative mode of teaching. “He was teaching them, as one having authority, and not as their Scribes and Pharisees” (Matthew 7:29).

(For meaning ofsynagogue,” see Matthew 4:23, Commentary on).

16. “And He came to Nazareth,” which He passed by on a former occasion (Matthew 4:13), “where He was brought up.”

Nazareth” was His native place, where He spent the period of boyhood and youth.

He went into the synagogue according to His custom,” &c. It was usual with the Jews to assemble on Sabbath and festival days in their synagogues for devotional exercises, such as, reading and hearing the Word of God, as also, prayer. “His custom,” may signify the custom He observed from infancy, of frequenting the places of devotion on Sabbath days; or, His custom of frequenting the synagogues since He commenced His mission, for the purpose of expounding the SS. Scriptures. Our Lord taught everywhere, all those who came to Him for instruction; and He availed Himself of every befitting occasion, especially when He wrought miracles, to expound His heavenly doctrines. But, on Sabbath days, He availed himself of the religious meetings in the synagogues to instruct the assembled people.

He rose up to read,” and expound the SS. Scriptures. It was usual with the Jews to have a certain portion of the Pentateuch read for the people in the synagogue on Sabbath days, to which was subjoined a section from the prophetical books bearing in sense on the passage read from the Pentateuch. Any one learned in the law, might be invited to read and expound such passages. See Acts (13:15), where “the reading of the law and the prophets” is referred to, also Acts (15:21). Our Lord “rose up to read,” thereby intimating, that He had “an exhortation to make to the people” (Acts 13:15). He read the SS. Scriptures in a standing posture, not only to be better heard, but chiefly out of reverence for the Word of God.

17. The Book of the Prophet Isaias was delivered to Him by “the minister” of the synagogue (v. 20). This, although humanly speaking, apparently accidental, was arranged by God’s providence, to afford Him an opportunity of showing His Divinity and Divine mission, from the writings of their own prophets.

Unfolded the book.” Unlike our modern form of books, the parchment was folded round a roller, in the form of a map—whence the term, Volume—and on unfolding it off the roller, “He found the place where it was written.” He lighted, doubtlessly, by the deliberato guidance of God’s providence, on the following passage (Isaias 41:1). This passage is quoted by St. Luke, according to the Septuagint version, save that Luke himself adds to the passage, according to that version, the words, “to set at liberty them that are bruised,” probably taken from Isaias (58:6), where these words are used in the Septuagint, in the imperative mood.

18. “The Spirit of the Lord is upon me.” In Isaias (61:1, 2), the Lord promises the Jewish people a Redeemer; some say, the Prophet primarily refers to the deliverance of the Jewish people from the Babylonish captivity, under Cyrus, which mystically and principally signifies their spiritual deliverance through Christ—“He shall come like a violent stream which the Spirit of the Lord driveth on” (59:19). In the passage quoted hero by St. Luke (Isaias 61:1), the Prophet represents the Deliverer or Redeemer as having already come, and saying, “the (promised) Spirit of the Lord is upon me,” or as is said elsewhere (Isaias 11:2), “rests upon Him.” I am filled with His gifts, which are bestowed upon me without stint or measure. This Spirit our Lord received at His Incarnation and from the hypostatic union. This Spirit guided and influenced all His actions.

Wherefore He”—the Hebrew has, “the Lord, hath anointed me.” “Anointed” is allusive to the rite employed in consecrating Kings, Prophets, and Priests. Here Christ is the Messiah or Anointed. It is because He had the fulness of all Divine gifts given Him without measure, at His Incarnation, therefore did the Lord anoint Him with the oil of gladness at His baptism; by this unction consecrating and preparing Him for the great office of preaching the Gospel. The words, “the Spirit of the Lord is upon me,” have reference to His Incarnation; and the words, “wherefore He hath anointed me,” to His baptism. The former is the cause of the latter. Some Commentators connect the words, “He hath anointed me” with, “to preach to the poor,” this being the office for which He was anointed and consecrated, to fit Him for it. “He hath anointed me to preach the Gospel to the poor,” and these connect the words, “sent me,” with “to heal the contrite,” &c., “He sent me to heal the contrite of heart.”

The poor.” This is the Septuagint rendering. The Hebrew has, “to the meek” (see Matthew 11:4). “To heal the contrite of heart,” whose hearts are heavily bruised with the heavy load of sin. These words are wanting in some Greek copies.

19. “To preach deliverance to the captives,” captive in the bonds of sin. “Deliverance,” from their chains, and also the providing of means for effectively accomplishing such deliverance.

And sight to the blind,” To bestow the light of faith and truth on those who are sitting in darkness and the shadow of death, and open the eyes of their understanding to the light of faith, against which they have been hitherto shut.

To set at liberty them that are bruised.” These words would seem to signify the same as the words, “to heal the contrite of heart.” Hence, some Expositors regard one or the other as redundant; and as the words, “to set at liberty, &c.,” are not found either in the Hebrew, or Chaldaic, or Greek, it is, most likely, the redundant phrase. A similar sentence is found in Isaias (58:6), “let them that are broken go free.” Probably, St. Luke inserted these words in the quotation here, taken from chap. 61:1 of Isaias, as illustrating the benefits conferred by our Redeemer, and more fully explaining the sense of the passage.

The Hebrew phrase, Laasurim Peqach, signifies, Laasurim, “those bound,” and Reqach, “an opening.” St. Jerome then rendered the words, “clausis apertionem,” “deliverance to them that are shut up.” But the Septuagint rendered them, τυφλοις αναβλεψιν, “sight to the blind.” For, assurim signifies, those bound. This is true of the blind, whose eyes are bound, and Peqach signifies, an opening. The blind, when restored to sight, have their eyes opened; hence, the Septuagint rendering of the words.

To preach the acceptable year of the Lord.” “Year,” is put for time. There is manifest allusion here to the year of Jubilee, which occurred every fiftieth year among the Jews, when slaves were set at liberty, and the possessions that were sold, reverted to their original owners. This Jubilee year among the Jews, and the blessings it brought with it, were a type of the entire period of the Christian dispensation, a period of time productive of the greatest blessings to mankind, when they are rescued from the slavery of Satan and sin; the greatest gifts of grace are conferred on them, and they are restored to their lost inheritance of heaven. Our Lord proclaimed this as present, “appropinquavit regnum, &c.” (Matthew 4:17.) This is the period of benevolence on the part of God; of His good-will towards man. This shall continue now to the end of the world. Hence, the Apostle says, “Ecce nunc tempus acceptabile; ecce nunc, dies salutis” (2 Cor. 6:2). Our Lord was sent to announce these glad tidings of a year of jubilee and perpetual reconcilation of God with man. “Pascha nostrum immolatus est Christus” (1 Cor. 5:7.)

And the day of reward.” St. Jerome renders the Hebrew, Jom naquam, “diem ultionis,” “the day of vengeance,” which some understand of the last day of general judgment, when the Lord, while rewarding the good, shall take vengeance on His enemies. Others, seeing that the entire prophetic quotation regards the benefits to be conferred by Christ on the children of the New Law, understand “vengeance,” of the evil spirits, the enemies of men’s souls, on whom our Lord will take signal vengeance, by publicly exposing them, to public view, to grace His triumph (Coloss. 2:15); judging the Prince of this world and casting him out. To this, reference is made in Isaias (35), “Behold your God shall bring the revenge of recompense; God Himself will come and will save you” (35:4). It is the same as the acceptable year. “Acceptable,” as regards God’s servants; “the day of vengeance,” as regards His and their enemies.

20. “And when He had folded the book,” on the roller round which it was folded, “He returned it to the minister,” the person who was in attendance on the chief officer of the synagogue, and had charge of the sacred books. “He sat down,” as was usually done in such cases before delivering a discourse on the subjects read previously in a standing posture by the speaker.

And the eyes of all in the synagogue were fixed on Him.” Probably, on seeing Him read who had not learned letters. It may be also that a Divine effulgence shone from His countenance; and as the Jews knew, that the prayer read had reference to the Messiah, they were anxious to know, if He might not Himself be the Messiah, considering the wonders wrought by Him elsewhere (v. 23), and the fame that went abroad regarding Him.

21. “This day is fulfilled this scripture in your ears.” “In your ears.” A Hebrew phrase for, in your hearing. This oracle of the prophet, which, as you know, regards your expected Messiah, is now fulfilled in me, whom you see preaching to the poor, and of whom you heard it stated, that He performed elsewhere the works described by the prophets, as the distinguishing characteristics of the Messiah. He thereby, without expressly stating it, insinuated that He Himself was the Messiah spoken of by Isaias.

22. “Gave testimony to Him;” not exactly that He was the Messiah, as appears from their calling Him “the son of Joseph,” and their attempt at precipitating Him down the hill; but, they testified to the superior way in which He acquitted Himself, as expressed in the following words, “and wondered at the words of grace, &c.,” the graceful, eloquent words that were uttered by Him, full of persuasiveness, so calculated to move and convince. “He spoke like one having authority, not as their Scribes and Pharisees” (Matthew 7:29).

Is not this the son of Joseph?” (Matthew 13:55). The son of a poor carpenter, Himself a carpenter, brought up in our midst, without influence or consideration or education of any kind. Hence, their wonder. Likely with this, at least in some of them, were mixed up feelings of scorn at His low extraction and humble occupation. “They were scandalized in His regard” (Matthew 13:57).


Filed under: Catholic, Christ, Notes on Luke's Gospel, Notes on the Lectionary, Scripture Tagged: Bible, Catholic, Notes on Luke's Gospel, Scripture

13:29

The wrong resistance [Oz Conservative]

I've been trying to find feminists speaking out against what happened in Cologne, without much success. However, one story has emerged of an artist, Milo Moire, who protested by standing naked outside Cologne Cathedral. Her explanation for her action was revealing:

"I stand for women's freedom to move freely. For the things we've achieved in the past 50 years – for women's emancipation," Moiré told Bild.

"I don't want people to trample on these values and for women to have to adapt themselves. Women must be able to live their values of freedom, with self-determination and self-awareness," she said.

Asked why she had decided to protest naked, Moiré said "I am firmly convinced that women will no longer be treated as sex objects when a naked woman is treated with as much respect as a clothed one."

You might think that this stands in opposition to what happened in Cologne, because it is promoting Western values rather than Islamic ones. But really it is just more of what led to Cologne in the first place.

If the primary value you stand for is a freedom of individual self-determination, then that will include not just a freedom to stand naked outside Cologne Cathedral, but also a freedom to decide in what country you will live and what nationality you will be. Which means a freedom of movement across borders. Which means millions of young Arab and North African men moving into German cities. Which means events in Cologne.

So Milo Moire is part of the problem and not the solution. To be part of the solution means recognising that there are things of value in life - goods - apart from individual choice, that individuals and communities are rightly oriented to.

If you are a religious traditionalist, you might see these goods as real essences, i.e. of being inherently good in their nature. You might, for instance, see a national tradition as a distinct expression of a human collective that has an essential quality that is good, and that rightly draws those belonging to it to a sense of love for it and a willingness to defend it in order to pass it on to future generations.

Secular traditionalists might not see things in terms of essences, but they can still recognise the value of distinct cultures; of the human need for identity and belonging; and of the wisdom of maintaining strength and security through some degree of homogeneity.

In a liberal society, none of these goods, religious or secular, are allowed to matter, because the overriding value is always thought to be the one held to by Milo Moire.

The freedom to stand naked outside a cathedral is a dubious and trivial one. The freedom not to be assaulted as a result of open door migration policies is a more serious one. If all you focus on is individual self-determination you get to have the first, trivial kind of freedom. If you want the more serious freedoms to survive, you have to be willing to take a larger view of what kinds of goods matter and how they can be upheld.

13:02

They Would Make You So Happy [Laudator Temporis Acti]

J. Moultrie, "Memoir of William Sidney Walker," in The Poetical Remains of William Sidney Walker (London: John W. Parker and Son, 1852), pp. iv-v (quoting from a "narrative of Walker's early years" written by his mother):

He had read History extensively at five years old, and Poetry still more devotedly; and it is a known circumstance that when, at six years old, the tailor came to measure him for his first suit, he was sent into what was called Sidney's little study, a small quiet room he much favoured; and on the man stating his errand, and his mother repeating it, Sidney said, "I am reading, come and tell me about this line; I cannot tell quite what Milton means here." To which the man replied, "I know nothing about books, Sir, I am come to take your measure for your new clothes;" and poor Sidney was obliged to put down his Milton, saying, in his always sweet manner when a child "I am so sorry you do not know about such books, they would make you so happy."

12:48

Horror in the Loo [Laudator Temporis Acti]

Miracles of Saint Thekla 7.2-3, tr. Scott Fitzgerald Johnson, Miracle Tales from Byzantium (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012), p. 27 (footnote omitted; angle brackets in original):

In the middle of the night, while Dexianos was seated on the privy, there stood before him a demonic creature, wild and raving mad. As soon as he perceived it standing next to him—<he knew it was there> because, even though he was sitting in pitch black darkness, <he could see> it was panting, leering, and making insane noises—he was stupefied and trembled with fear, completely overwhelmed with dread and drenched with sweat. And because of his great fright, his head and his neck slipped from their normal base and position, and the vertebrae were no longer aligned and slipped out of joint with one another, his head trembled and was shifting all around. As a result, there was common grief among those who saw him <in this state>.

What then did the martyr do? Recognizing the demon who had done this, and pitying the miserably afflicted man, <whom she knew> as a priest, an honorable man, and her own attendant, immediately she delivered him from his suffering, so that even so great an affliction as this ceased immediately and disappeared through the miracle.

11:11

Barmherzigkeit [ignatius his conclave]

VinNicholsPic797_1382733a

Rumours are rife that our Vincent – who is already cutting something of a dash in the Vatican – is to become the head of the new dicastery on the family. Streetwise observers will already have been scanning the available obiter dicta to discern the shape of things to come. The shape (as so often with these things) is not entirely clear; but, as this excerpt shows, the flavour is saccharin:

Last Sunday I joined thousands of people in St Peter’s Square waiting to receive the blessing of Pope Francis. I was surrounded by families: babies asleep in prams, young children crawling on the cobbles, older children entertaining each other, teenagers looking studiously bored, fathers surveying the scene protectively, mothers holding up their children and pointing to the Holy Father, groups of families on holiday together, uncles and aunts, three or four generations.

I looked at them with fresh eyes, having just come from the closing Mass of the Synod of Bishops on the Vocation and Mission of the Family. There we had been fashioning fresh ways of thinking about the family in the plan of God. We had agreed that the family is an ‘image and likeness of the Blessed Trinity’, a reflection of the mystery of love which is the life of God. In the families around me I could contemplate that love being expressed in everyday ways, a love which strives so hard to be faithful, to overcome rows and difficulties with forgiveness, a love which gives energy for the day and rest in weariness. In the Synod we had talked of the family as ‘a blessing for the Church’: the place where we learn and share how to live by faith, where we teach and practice family prayer, and the place from which we reach out to others in their need.

All of this was summed up for me in a phrase: the family is the flesh of the Church. In St Peter’s Square, and in every parish, I see in the families around me the very flesh of the Church, the life of Christ taking place before my eyes. It is they who so often show most clearly the work of the Beatitudes….

Our final document of the Synod, which we presented to Pope Francis for his consideration, speaks often of this ‘pathway of accompaniment’, of that ‘reverential listening’, which is the first act of mercy, of the work of ‘discernment’, of wanting to come close to the reality of so many lives in their difficulties and trials. During the Synod discussions, many wanted us to express, humbly, a word of regret and apology that this often has not been the path we have taken. I am glad to do so now.

Trust Vincent – always relentlessly on message!

 


10:50

Not all German bishops are bad!! [Fr Hunwicke's Mutual Enrichment]

Well, of course they aren't. Joseph Ratzinger and Gerhard Mueller are, after all, both Germans and both bishops. But there are others. Good has been heard of Bishops Oster of Passau; Zdarser of Augsburg; Hanke of Eichstaett (a See founded by the English S Willibald*, relative of S Boniface of Exeter); Ipolt of Goerlitz; Voderholzer of Regensburg (a See founded by S Boniface himself); and Hofmann

10:00

Publicist post in Latin Mass Society advertised [LMS Chairman]

The Archangel Gabriel, messenger.
A year ago the Latin Mass Society appointed, just for our 50th anniversary year, our first Publicist / Press Officer. We are extending the experiment with more hours, more money, and a somewhat tweaked job description.


It will now be 10 hours a week, to manage the Society's flow of news through the dead-wood media, but above all on social media.

The deadline for applications is 29th January 2016. It is envisaged that the job will be done mainly from home.

See more details on our website here.

How then shall they call upon him in whom they have not believed? and how shall they believe on him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without one who preaches? and how shall they preach unless they have been sent? according as it is written, How beautiful the feet of them that announce glad tidings of peace, of them that announce glad tidings of good things! (Romans 10:14f)
Support the work of the LMS by becoming an 'Anniversary Supporter'.

08:43

The Immemorial Mass of All Ages is Probably the Only Place Anyone Evangelizes in the Modern Church Any More [The Eponymous Flower]

Note: someone just wrote complaining on behalf of RCIA programs. While they exist officially to bring people into the Catholic Church, the laity entrusted to operate these programs are woefully underformed, often malformed and heretical, as is typical of most diocesan parishes.

Edit: URGENT -- Bugninine Liturgy in trouble and in decline in Western world due to religious indifferentism, and it doesn't matter how many Gospel/Folk/Easy Listening 70s Power Pop you include. If there isn't enough evangelization going on in places where the Immemorial Mass of All Ages is being said, it's actually forbidden or frowned upon in diocesan parishes. Why evangelize when your liturgy resembles that of the Methodists and Lutherans down the street? And if the Mass crowd stuck in the 60s with St. Louis Jesuits are indifferent to evangelization, hasn't the Pope himself spoken out against proselytism and made statements which frustrate evangelism in the first place? If evangelization is a dirty word anywhere, it's in the run-of-the-mill ho-hum diocesan parish.

Here's an excellent response to Msgr. Charles Pope's urgent call for more evangelization (As if traditionalist Catholics don't). Actually, traditionalists are most likely to be the only people in the Church who bother.

SEVERAL YEARS AGO, Msgr. Charles Pope made headlines when an Archdiocesan blog published his defense of Gospel music for the Roman Catholic liturgy. While I appreciate the genre of Gospel music—and some pieces are lovely—I was troubled by his assertions with respect to music history. 1 On 7 January, Msgr. Pope wrote a piece for the NATIONAL CATHOLIC REGISTER with a sensational title:

“Urgent Warning About the Future of the Traditional Latin Mass”

Throughout his article, Msgr. Pope says things like: “The Traditional Latin Mass appeals to a certain niche group of Catholics, but the number in that group appears to have reached its maximum.” He keeps referring to a “ceiling” that’s been reached, making inexplicable references to “20 years ago, when the Solemn Mass was thriving.” His description of the EF early years does not match my recollection of the 1990s, nor accounts by pioneers like Fr. Michael Irwin (one of the first FSSP priests assigned to the USA).

Msgr. Pope seems to be unaware of charts like this one:

Link to ... AMDG

08:06

BIRMINGHAM? WHERE? WHEN? [Fr Hunwicke's Mutual Enrichment]

I gather that tomorrow, Sunday January 10, Pontifical High Mass in the Extraordinary Form is to be sung by the Most Reverend the Metropolitan Archbishop, in the Birmingham Oratory (I wouldn't want you going to the Cathedral and being disappointed!) at 10:15.

07:38

A Little Silliness [iBenedictines]

The British tend to be sentimental about animals. They allow us to unbend our proverbial stiff upper lips and say affectionate things to them we would never dream of saying to any human being. They hear our confessions long before (…)

Read the rest of this entry »

05:35

A New Deck for Liguori House [Transalpine Redemptorists at home]

Some time ago one of the faithful donated
the top decking wood for Liguori house.
Before Christmas action was taken begin installing the deck
with the help of friends and faithful.


Br Xavier prepares the ground work by cutting a straight edge to the concrete.

A young man of our parish Jose breaks the pieces away.

Connecting a hose pipe stopped the dust clouds.

John Shortall organised the buying of the frame wood
and is here cutting the lengths needed.

Tim White assists in assembling the framework.

Without the help of Jason the job would not have been completed so efficiently.

A nail gun makes quick work of the assembly.



Daniel and his son Isaac here assist at dismantling the old ramp.


The use of "tuffblocks" made the footings much easier than digging holes.
These are placed level on the ground and support the framework.

A lazer level to keep everything perfectly horizontal.


Young men of the parish giving a helping hand.


Nothing like hot pizza to keep body and soul together.

The moment of truth putting the frame upon the "tuffblocks".


Gently does it!

A few minor adjustments . . .

. . . and the frame is sound and solid.

The decking wood can now be attached . . .

. . . and many hands make light work.

The first section looking splendid.


With Christmas and Epiphany over works continue.

The Conlan family have come in force to continue the job.

Team effort makes the work much easier.
The deck in the front of Liguori House finished and stained.


04:00

Matins readings for the week of the first Sunday after Epiphany [Lectio Divina Notes]

Sunday 10 January: First Sunday after Epiphany

Nocturn I1 Corinthians I: 1-3; 4-9; 10-11; 12-13

Nocturn IISermon 36 of St Leo

Nocturn III: Homily of St Ambrose on St Luke 2:63-65 (not available)

GospelSt Luke 2: 42-52

Monday 11 January

1 Corinthians 2: 1-5; 6-9; 10-13

Tuesday 12 January

1 Corinthians 5: 1-5; 6-8; 9-11

Wednesday 13 January: Commemoration of the Baptism of Our Lord

Nocturn I: 1 Corinthians 6: 1-18, divided into four readings

Nocturn II: Sermon of St Gregory Nazianzen (from I, XV, XVI)

Nocturn III : Homily of St Augustine (Tract. 6 on John, n 7&8)

GospelSt John 1: 29-34

Thursday 14 January

1 Corinthians 7: 1-4; 5-9; 10-14

Friday 15 January

1 Corinthians 13: 1-3; 4-10; 11-13

Saturday 16 January (Saturday of Our Lady)

Readings 1&2 1 Corinthians 16: 1-4; 5-14
Reading 3: Of Our Lady for third Saturday in January (Sermon of Leo, 22: from II)

Jubilee of Mercy, But With the Confessionals Empty [Chiesa -]

The shocking letter of a priest with the care of souls. Fewer and fewer penitents, and less and less repentant. The counterproductive effects of a “door” thrown open too wide

03:45

The Pope Francis Commercial: But What Is he Selling? [LES FEMMES - THE TRUTH]

THIS?  


Watch the video below with the realization that most Catholics are so badly catechized since Vatican II that they don't believe in the Real Presence nor do they believe in many core doctrines like the sanctity of human life, the nature of marriage, the reality of sin, the existence of hell, the sinfulness of contraception, fornication, abortion, sodomy, etc.

Imagine you know very little about your faith. What message would you take from this video?




You would probably notice two big true statements that are lovely and comforting:
1) We are all children of God.
2) We are called to love one another regardless of our religious differences. 
Of course that's true and something to rejoice in. But what else is going on here? Is there any ambivalence in the video? Absolutely! And what is that ambivalence?

Let me answer that question within the context of  some definitions:
Context: the circumstances that form the setting for an event, statement, or idea, and in terms of which it can be fully understood and assessed:
Connotation: an idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning
The context of the video is the pope's monthly intention and this is just the first of what is expected to be regular monthly video productions. But the context decidedly does NOT set the message within Catholic doctrine, i.e., the doctrine about the nature and relationship of the Catholic faith to other faiths.  Does anyone watching this video "get" the message of Vatican II that:
...it is through Christ's Catholic Church alone, which is the universal help toward salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be obtained. It was to the apostolic college alone, of which Peter is the head, that we believe that our Lord entrusted all the blessings of the New Covenant, in order to establish on earth the one Body of Christ into which all those should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the People of God.
Does this video not rather present a context of the oneness of all religions -- especially the final scene showing the religious symbols (including a statue of Buddha) held out by the four participating faith representatives and the declaration of each participant that "I believe in love?" Does the repetition of that sentence not connote that love (undefined) is the universal law and all these religions in sharing love (again undefined) share unity? What is love to a Buddhist? What is love to a Muslim? Are all these people speaking the same language? Do a Buddhist, a Unitarian, a Muslim, a moral relativist mean the same thing when they speak of "love?"

That particular part of the video reminded me of Joseph Fletcher's book, Situation Ethics, which presented a "love" that could even be used to justify killing because the intention of love is what matters even if the action taken "for love" results in evil.

And then there is what the video implies.
Imply: to strongly suggest the truth or existence of something not expressly stated
I think it implies the same message as the bumper sticker above, a message of Syncretism.
Syncretism: the merger and analogizing of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths.
The unspoken message appears to be that there is an "underlying unity" between non-theistic religions like Buddhism, non-Trinitarian religions like Judaism and Islam, and, finally, Christianity. It is interesting that the representative Christian is a man in a roman collar who may be a Catholic priest, but could just as easily be an Episcopalian, Anglican, or other Protestant tradition whose ministers adopt the same clerical garb. The only explicitly Catholic figure is the pope himself.  Did the video deliberately imply syncretism, or is this just one more example of confusion which has become the hallmark of Pope Francis?

Many Catholics today already live in a faith world of religious indifferentism:
Indifferentism: in the Roman Catholic faith, is the belief held by some that no one religion or philosophy is superior to another.
No conversion is necessary to Catholicism. No religion, no church can be described as the "one, true Church" founded by Christ. Evangelization is unnecessary. We are all good people and God is too nice to send anyone to hell which probably doesn't exist anyway, so it doesn't matter a wit what your religion is or even what you do as long as you do it out of "love."

Good grief! Why did Jesus die on the cross?

I confess, I found this video one more baffling contribution to confusion. How does it contribute to the salvation of souls with its mushy message? And, it seems to me, that it also casts doubt on the actions of all the Catholic missionaries who died to spread the one, true faith and bring pagans and heretics to repentance. Were they all just rigid zealots, unmerciful and doctrinaire? Were St. Isaac Jogues and, St. Jean de Brebeuf too close-minded to see the beauty of the Indians' natural religion? Were St. Boniface and St. Peter Chanel and countless others just intolerant bigots who believed they had "absolute truth?" Why did they shed their blood when all they needed was "love" and a theology based on "I'm okay, you're okay?"

As I listened to this video I remembered my personal response as a young college student to a message like this -- a moral theology class that used Joseph Fletcher, Harvey Cox, and other voices of the world to teach students to "believe in love." I swallowed it hook, line, and sinker for a time, left the Church, and floundered around on my own until I realized what Edith Stein taught:
Do not accept anything as the truth if it lacks love. And do not accept anything as love which lacks truth! One without the other becomes a destructive lie.
Pray for the pope daily and pray for Holy Mother Church. We are in the time predicted by Our Lady at Akita when, "The work of the devil will infiltrate even into the Church in such a way that one will see cardinals opposing cardinals, bishops against bishops. The priests who venerate me will be scorned and opposed by their confreres...churches and altars sacked; the Church will be full of those who accept compromises and the demon will press many priests and consecrated souls to leave the service of the Lord." Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, have mercy on us."

01:13

I’ll have to go to Las Vegas or Monaco [Semiduplex]

A little while back, at The Paraphasic, Elliot Milco had a lengthy post on the definition of capitalism. One may be excused for missing the discussions in various places over the last eighteen months, but the question of capitalism is one of the most vexing questions for serious Catholic thinkers. (It should be, anyway.) In the American Church, doctrinal conservatives are usually (not always, but usually) political conservatives. Consequently, Catholic doctrinal conservatives tend to favor the sort of robust—unrestrained?—free-market capitalism favored on the American political right. However, the Church has long been suspicious—since Rerum novarum, in fact—of the sort of robust free-market capitalism that is so popular among conservative American Catholics. This creates tensions, especially since many traditionally minded Catholics reject the conservative political consensus that capitalism is hugely virtuous.

Last month, we noted that the lack of a workable definition of economic liberalism created issues for traditionally minded Catholics in arguing against the robust-free-market positions taken by doctrinally conservative Catholics who have thrown in with American political conservatives. We proposed a definition articulated by the great Canadian Thomist Henri Grenier in his Thomistic Philosophy. Elliot Milco identifies a similar problem with respect to the definition of capitalism, and he sets out to work out a good, functional definition.

It seems clear that the “obvious” definition of Capitalism in the air (i.e. the one which occurs most readily) is something like this: Capitalism is a model of commercial activity in which the maximization of profits is pursued as the primary (or even exclusive) end of business.

(Emphasis in original.) He then examines some of the limitations of this definition and comes up with a slightly restated definition:

Capitalism is a model of commercial activity in which we attempt, through labor, exchange, and other means, to maximize our assets, considered in terms of their exchange value, and pursue this maximization as the primary or even exclusive end of commerce.

(Emphasis in original.) This definition seems to us to be very workable, at least as a starting place when discussing capitalism in the context of the Church’s traditional social teaching.

To understand why Milco’s definition works, even if one thinks that it could be improved, perhaps we had better look at an older definition. Which, of course, means turning to Henri Grenier’s Thomistic Philosophy again. Grenier first gives the definition of capital:

Capital, according to its strict meaning in Economics, is defined: the part of produced wealth reserved or in actual use for new production; v.g., instruments and machines of every kind, the various kinds of primary products required for production, and the whole gamut of economic operations.

In modern usage, any kind of wealth is called capital; and capital is divided into social capital and juridical capital.

Under the heading of social capital come all wealth and material goods of all kinds.

Under the heading of juridical capital come money and things of pecuniary value.

(3 Thomistic Philosophy § 1145, 1º) (italics in original and emphasis supplied). With that in place, Grenier proceeds to define capitalism, though it will be seen that the definition of capitalism follows trivially from the definition of capital.

But before we get there, Grenier distinguishes between a general definition and a pejorative definition of capitalism. This is an interesting move, though how much of a move it actually is remains to be seen. The general definition he gives as:

Capitalism in itself signifies capitalistic production, i.e., production in which all agencies distinct from capital are more or less under the sway of capital. It is an economic system, then, in which capital plays a preponderant role, and in which the function of capital is separate from the function of labor.

(3 Thomistic Philosophy § 1145, 2º) (emphasis supplied). In other words, the general definition of capitalism is an economic system in which either material goods or money (i.e., social or juridical capital) is the key player and separate from labor.

Grenier then gives the pejorative definition:

Capitalism, in its pejorative meaning, may be described: systems of economic and social relations, born of capitalistic production, in which the holders of economic and social capital, and especially of juridical capital, i.e., of money, in their eagerness for excessive profits, play not only a preponderant but an unlawful and abusive role.

(Id.) (emphasis in original). The difference between the pejorative definition and the general definition is not particularly clear; or, to put it less controversially, it is a matter of degree. That is, in the general definition, capitalism is the mode of production in which wealth or money (i.e., social or juridical capital) plays a preponderant role. In the pejorative definition, the holders of wealth or money, “especially” money, exceed their preponderant role and play an unlawful and abusive role. This definition admits of shades of gray, to say the least.

We see that Milco’s definition is more practical. While Grenier is undoubtedly correct in strict terms, he is also undoubtedly abstract. One of the favored accusations of the Actonistas and the other Catholics who uphold the robust free market as a good in and of itself is that the Catholics who hold and follow the Church’s traditional social teaching do not understand economics. (As though that makes a difference.) Grenier’s definition plays into that problem: capitalism is “an economic system . . . in which capital plays a preponderant role, and in which the function of capital is separate from the function of labor.” This definition, while undeniably correct in a strict sense, points toward other, more complicated concepts. At some point, you’ll have to grapple with economic concepts if you want to use Grenier’s definition, just as the political conservatives allege. Milco’s definition, on the other hand, is couched in more practical terms. When people talk about capitalism, they undoubtedly mean more or less what Milco sets forth in his definition.

To put it another way, when people talk about capitalism, they probably do not mean the system in which capital, which is to say wealth of various forms, plays the central role in production. That definition is a little opaque. Certainly, Grenier’s predicate definitions can clear things up, and distinguishing a general and a pejorative definition helps, but, even at that, the definition is still going to be a little stilted. What people talk about when they talk about capitalism is probably more or less what Milco says: “a model of commercial activity in which we attempt, through labor, exchange, and other means, to maximize our assets, considered in terms of their exchange value, and pursue this maximization as the primary or even exclusive end of commerce.” (Emphasis omitted.) So, as we have noted before, when traditionally minded Catholics try to engage with Actonistas or other Catholics who think that the free market is per se good, there’s bound to be trouble.

One interesting aspect of Milco’s definition, which deserves special mention, is that it points out the extent to which modern thinking about capitalism is morally questionable from the get-go. This is to say, the unrestrained profit motive is the primary moral problem with capitalism. Recall that Aquinas addresses the profit motive in IIa IIae q.77 a.4, where he takes up the question, utrum liceat negotiando aliquid charius vendere quam emere, cf. IIa IIae q.77 pr., or whether it is lawful in trading to sell something at a higher price than paid for it. Aquinas draws a careful distinction:

Respondeo dicendum quod ad negotiatores pertinet commutationibus rerum insistere. Ut autem philosophus dicit, in I Polit., duplex est rerum commutatio. Una quidem quasi naturalis et necessaria, per quam scilicet fit commutatio rei ad rem, vel rerum et denariorum, propter necessitatem vitae. Et talis commutatio non proprie pertinet ad negotiatores, sed magis ad oeconomicos vel politicos, qui habent providere vel domui vel civitati de rebus necessariis ad vitam. Alia vero commutationis species est vel denariorum ad denarios, vel quarumcumque rerum ad denarios, non propter res necessarias vitae, sed propter lucrum quaerendum. Et haec quidem negotiatio proprie videtur ad negotiatores pertinere. Secundum philosophum autem, prima commutatio laudabilis est, quia deservit naturali necessitati. Secunda autem iuste vituperatur, quia, quantum est de se, deservit cupiditati lucri, quae terminum nescit sed in infinitum tendit. Et ideo negotiatio, secundum se considerata, quandam turpitudinem habet, inquantum non importat de sui ratione finem honestum vel necessarium. Lucrum tamen, quod est negotiationis finis, etsi in sui ratione non importet aliquid honestum vel necessarium, nihil tamen importat in sui ratione vitiosum vel virtuti contrarium. Unde nihil prohibet lucrum ordinari ad aliquem finem necessarium, vel etiam honestum. Et sic negotiatio licita reddetur. Sicut cum aliquis lucrum moderatum, quod negotiando quaerit, ordinat ad domus suae sustentationem, vel etiam ad subveniendum indigentibus, vel etiam cum aliquis negotiationi intendit propter publicam utilitatem, ne scilicet res necessariae ad vitam patriae desint, et lucrum expetit non quasi finem, sed quasi stipendium laboris.

This translation is the English Dominican translation made available by the Dominican House of Studies website:

 I answer that, A tradesman is one whose business consists in the exchange of things. According to the Philosopher (Polit. i, 3), exchange of things is twofold; one, natural as it were, and necessary, whereby one commodity is exchanged for another, or money taken in exchange for a commodity, in order to satisfy the needs of life. Such like trading, properly speaking, does not belong to tradesmen, but rather to housekeepers or civil servants who have to provide the household or the state with the necessaries of life. The other kind of exchange is either that of money for money, or of any commodity for money, not on account of the necessities of life, but for profit, and this kind of exchange, properly speaking, regards tradesmen, according to the Philosopher (Polit. i, 3). The former kind of exchange is commendable because it supplies a natural need: but the latter is justly deserving of blame, because, considered in itself, it satisfies the greed for gain, which knows no limit and tends to infinity. Hence trading, considered in itself, has a certain debasement attaching thereto, in so far as, by its very nature, it does not imply a virtuous or necessary end. Nevertheless gain which is the end of trading, though not implying, by its nature, anything virtuous or necessary, does not, in itself, connote anything sinful or contrary to virtue: wherefore nothing prevents gain from being directed to some necessary or even virtuous end, and thus trading becomes lawful. Thus, for instance, a man may intend the moderate gain which he seeks to acquire by trading for the upkeep of his household, or for the assistance of the needy: or again, a man may take to trade for some public advantage, for instance, lest his country lack the necessaries of life, and seek gain, not as an end, but as payment for his labor.

It may be worth noting, given the Common Doctor’s repeated citation to Aristotle here, that in his volume of the Blackfriars Summa, Marcus Lefébure, O.P., argued that Aquinas’s position represents a “discreet[] but definite[]” break with Aristotle regarding commercial activity for profit (vol. 38, p. 228, cmt. b). It’s an interesting point that turns on Aristotle’s Politics I, 3, and it seems to us that it is entirely possible that Aquinas softens a hard-line Aristotelian injunction against commerce for profit. On the other hand, Aquinas’s fundamental argument—profit is in se morally neutral, and the morality of profit seeking is determined by its end—is not wholly alien to Aristotle’s point in the Politics. At any rate, one ought to recognize that, while Aquinas brings Aristotle into the debate, it is not at all clear that Aristotle would have reached the same answer as Aquinas.

That aside, without getting too deeply into Aquinas’s argument (or Aristotle’s, for that matter), we think—though we could probably convinced otherwise—that Aquinas intends to separate the small businessman, to use common parlance, from speculators or traders more generally. It is, perhaps, the difference between the proprietor of the corner grocery store and the commodity trader. Aquinas would likely say that the grocer, who is likely supporting his family, probably does not have a moral problem when he makes his modest profit. And, since his modest profit is intended to support his family, he probably could not be blamed for taking that profit seriously and attempting to increase it modestly. But the commodity trader may well have a moral problem when he makes a killing shorting frozen concentrated orange juice based upon a crop forecast. But that’s because the commodity trader views the maximization of profits as his sole (or preeminent) end. If the commodity trader needed millions of dollars to support his family or if he labored mightily and perilously to obtain FCOJ for a grateful nation, then the story might be different.

But what if the grocer runs his store like the commodity trader? What if he sets out to maximize his assets through trading? Certainly, he’s not likely to corner the FCOJ market with Mortimer and Randolph Duke, but he could very well have a fundamentally capitalistic outlook on his business. He could well want gain for gain’s sake, which Aquinas tells us is morally troublesome. This is what we mean when we say that the unrestrained profit motive is the primary moral problem with capitalism.

And Milco’s proposed definition brings this problem to the front of the debate. The definition he proposes certainly captures some essential element of the current, popular thinking on what capitalism means. It just so happens that that current, popular thinking has problems.

Postscript: Elliot Milco had some very kind things to say about Semiduplex very recently. For the most part, we note, this post was written before he made his very generous statements. We do, however, appreciate very much his notice. 

 


00:37

First (The Christmas Card I Wanted To Write) [Loved As If]

“[S]eek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things shall be yours as well.” (Matthew 6:33)

God reveals the beauty in us.

Pieta, The C.1498 Buonarroti, Michelangelo (1475-1564 Italian) Marble Sculpture St. Peter’s Basilica, Vatican City

First, it hurts. Like warm water on frozen fingers. Like Michelangelo chipping away at a block of marble because he knows the Pieta or David is within. Chip. chip. Chip. God is plying his little hammer and chisel. First, it hurts.

Then I remember that first, my parents gave me to God in baptism and entrusted me to His care.

And first, I chose to risk my life on the belief that He really meant, “seek first his kingdom and his righteousness, and all these things shall be yours as well.” If that promise is a lie, then all the other firsts are meaningless.

And first, He has always made it possible for me to withstand the chiseling and so I remain and let Him work. He loves me. I know that. There is no why. I’m not worthy. There is only love.

And first, there are my friends who share in community I hoped for but could never really imagine. They’re the biggest surprise. They wait with me as God warms my frozen flesh and brings me back to life. They wait as He chisels away. They wait in expectation even when I can’t turn my eyes in hope that there is something glorious in me that He is releasing. They wait even when I can’t find words to say “thank you” for loving me. So I will wait with them. I will have faith in their faith.

First, it’s a glorious new year.

*****************************

On Friday (and occasionally Saturday if Friday is filled with an excess of other activities),100s of bloggers set a timer, write for 5 minutes, and then post the results over at Kate Motaung’s blog, Heading Home. She provides the prompt on Thursday evening. We don’t edit or concern ourselves with whether our writing is flawless or worthy to be seen. We expose our incomplete, unpolished thoughts and words to each other and our readers and tweet them with the hashtag #FMFParty. Join us.

The post First (The Christmas Card I Wanted To Write) appeared first on Loved As If.

Feeds

FeedRSSLast fetchedNext fetched after
XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Καθολικός διάκονος XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
A Blog for Dallas Area Catholics XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
A Clerk of Oxford XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
A Foretaste of Wisdom XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Abbey Roads XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Ad Majorem Dei Gloriam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Adelante la Fe XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
AKA Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Aleteia.org XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Andrew Cusack XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Arimathea Atom Feed XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Athanasius Contra Mundum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Australia Incognita XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Barnhardt XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Beiboot Petri XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Biblical Evidence for Catholicism XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
BRUNONIS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Called to Communion XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Cardinal Newman Society All Posts XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Answers XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Faith and Reason - Our Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Catholic Sacristan XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicCulture.org - Commentary on Catholic News and World Affairs XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicCulture.org - In Depth Analysis of Catholic Issues XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CatholicHerald.co.uk » CatholicHerald.co.uk XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Charlotte was Both XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Chiesa - XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA - Daily Readings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA - Saint of the Day XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA Daily News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNA Daily News - Vatican XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Movie Reviews XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Top Stories XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CNS Vatican News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Commentary - thomistica XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Community in Mission XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Comunión Tradicionalista XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Conjectures of a Guilty Bystander XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Corpus Christi Watershed news XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Creative Minority Report XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
CRISTIANDAD XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Cum Lazaro XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
David Scott Writings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Denzinger-Katholik XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Diligite iustitiam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dom Donald's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dominicana XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dominus mihi adjutor XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Dyspeptic Mutterings XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Eastern Christian Books XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Edinburgh Housewife XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Edward Feser XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
et nunc XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Ethika Politika XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
EUCist News XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Faithful Answers XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
For the Queen XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr Hunwicke's Mutual Enrichment XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr Ray Blake's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Fr. Z's Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Galileo Was Wrong XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Gratia Super Naturam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
History of Interpretation XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
https://creamcitycatholic.com/feed/ XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
I Have to Sit Down XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
iBenedictines XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
IDLE SPECULATIONS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
ignatius his conclave XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Il Blog di Raffaella. Riflessioni e commenti fra gli Amici di Benedetto XVI XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
In Campo Aperto XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
In the Light of the Law XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Incarnation and Modernity XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Infallible Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Instaurare Omnia in Christo - The Blog XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Jimmy Akin XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
John G. Brungardt, Ph.L. XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
John V. Gerardi XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Just Thomism XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
katholon XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Korrektiv XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Laodicea XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Laudator Temporis Acti XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Le blog d'Yves Daoudal XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Lectio Divina Notes XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
LES FEMMES - THE TRUTH XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Lex Christianorum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Ley Natural XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Little Flower Farm XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
LMS Chairman XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Loved As If XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
marcpuck XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Mary Victrix XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Mathias von Gersdorff XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Musings of a Pertinacious Papist XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Liturgical Movement XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Sherwood XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
New Song XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
News - thomistica XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
NICK'S CATHOLIC BLOG XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
One Mad Mom XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
OnePeterFive XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Opus Publicum XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Over the Rhine and Into the Tiber XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Oz Conservative XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Paths of Love XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Psallam Domino XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RORATE CÆLI XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
RSS XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Sancrucensis XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Scholastiker XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Semiduplex XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Siris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Spirit of Teuchtar II XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Conleth's Catholic Heritage Association XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
St. Peter's List XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Steeple and State XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Symposium XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tęsknota XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Taylor Marshall XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Tea at Trianon XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
That The Bones You Have Crushed May Thrill XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The American Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Badger Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Dormitory XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Catholic Thing XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The City and the World XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Daily Register XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Deacon's Bench XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Divine Lamp XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Eponymous Flower XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The hermeneutic of continuity XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Jesuit Post XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Josias XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Lepanto Institute XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Low Churchman's Guide to the Solemn High Mass XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Paraphasic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Prosblogion XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Rad Trad XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Remnant Newspaper - The Remnant Newspaper - Remnant Articles XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sacred Page XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The Sensible Bond XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
The TOF Spot XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Theological Flint XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
totaliter aliter XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Traditional Catholic Priest XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Transalpine Redemptorists at home XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unam Sanctam Catholicam XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Unequally Yoked XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Voice of the Family XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vox Cantoris XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Vultus Christi XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Whispers in the Loggia XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
ZENIT - The World Seen From Rome XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Zippy Catholic XML 22:00, Thursday, 21 January 23:00, Thursday, 21 January
Archives...
January 2016
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
December 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
November 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30010203040506
October 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293001020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
September 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
August 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31010203040506
July 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29300102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930310102
June 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29300102030405
May 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
April 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30310102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930010203
March 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
23242526272801
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30310102030405
February 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272801
January 2015
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29303101020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
December 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29303101020304
November 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
October 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29300102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930310102
September 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29300102030405
August 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
July 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
June 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30010203040506
May 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293001020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
April 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
March 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
24252627280102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31010203040506
February 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627280102
January 2014
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30310102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930310102
December 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
25262728293001
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30310102030405
November 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293001
October 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
August 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29303101020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
July 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29303101020304
June 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
May 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29300102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282930310102
April 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29300102030405
March 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
25262728010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
February 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728010203
January 2013
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
December 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829300102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
31010203040506
November 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
29303101020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829300102
October 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29303101020304
September 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930310102
03040506070809
10111213141516
17181920212223
24252627282930
June 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293001
May 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
March 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282901020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
February 2012
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30310102030405
06070809101112
13141516171819
20212223242526
27282901020304
December 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293001020304
05060708091011
12131415161718
19202122232425
26272829303101
November 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
July 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
27282930010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
April 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293001
March 2011
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
November 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
01020304050607
08091011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
29300102030405
August 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30310102030405
June 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
31010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293001020304
January 2010
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
28293031010203
04050607080910
11121314151617
18192021222324
25262728293031
December 2009
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
30010203040506
07080910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031010203
November 2009
MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
26272829303101
02030405060708
09101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
30010203040506